Present addresses: School of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China.
Yellowstone Lake: high-energy geochemistry and rich bacterial diversity
Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2011
© 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Thematic Issue: Extremophiles. Guest Editors: Ricardo Cavicchioli, Ricardo Amils, Dirk Wagner, Terry McGenity
Volume 13, Issue 8, pages 2172–2185, August 2011
How to Cite
Clingenpeel, S., Macur, R. E., Kan, J., Inskeep, W. P., Lovalvo, D., Varley, J., Mathur, E., Nealson, K., Gorby, Y., Jiang, H., LaFracois, T. and McDermott, T. R. (2011), Yellowstone Lake: high-energy geochemistry and rich bacterial diversity. Environmental Microbiology, 13: 2172–2185. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02466.x
- Issue online: 21 AUG 2011
- Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2011
- Received 4 August, 2010; accepted 15 February, 2011.
Fig. S1. Summary of total microbial counts of lake surface water or vent water samples pre-filtered through 20 µm filters and then size-fractioned and collected on 3.0 µm, 0.8 µm or 0.1 µm nominal pore-size filters. All counts used SYBR Gold and epifluorescence microscopy. Error bars indicate 1 standard deviation of the mean.
Fig. S2. Phylogenetic affiliations of near full-length α-Proteobacteria clones recovered from Yellowstone Lake. The four numbers following some clone designators are the % of 454 sequences represented by that clone for the samples in the following order: West Thumb Deep vent, Otter vent, Inflated Plain Photic and Southeast Arm Photic zones. Bootstrap values are shown for nodes that had > 50% support in a bootstrap analysis of 100 replicates.
Fig. S3. Phylogenetic affiliations of near full-length β-Proteobacteria clones recovered from Yellowstone Lake. The four numbers following some clone designators are the % of 454 sequences represented by that clone for the samples in the following order: West Thumb Deep vent, Otter vent, Inflated Plain Photic and Southeast Arm Photic zones. Bootstrap values are shown for nodes that had > 50% support in a bootstrap analysis of 100 replicates.
Fig. S4. Phylogenetic affiliations of near full-length Actinobacteria clones recovered from Yellowstone Lake. For clones that comprised at least 1% of the 454-FLX reads at any site, their distribution across the lake is shown in parentheses as the % of 454 sequences retrieved from the West Thumb Deep vent, Otter vent, Inflated Plain Photic and Southeast Arm Photic zones.
Table S1. Summary of prominent geochemical characteristics associated with the Yellowstone Lake samples taken in 2007.
Table S2. A comparative summary of richness indices for Bacteria presented as a function of sequence similarity OTUs without and with quality screening as described by Kunin et al. (2009).
Table S3. RDP classifications of 454 sequencing reads, summarized for each lake location as a percentage of the total 454 reads for that location. Dominant phyla are highlighted with yellow, and phyla thought to be dominated by thermophiles are highlighted in brown. Absence of an entry indicates below detection. Note that for the Proteobacteria designation, the RDP classifier could not assign many reads below the phylum level and thus summing the subphylum designations does not equal total Proteobacteria.
Movie S1. High temperature, high gas flux geothermal vent in Inflated Plain, Yellowstone Lake. A 60 sec. video excerpt showing the ROV sampling arm inserted into the vent opening in preparation for collecting water for chemical analysis. Gas bubbles can be seen releasing from the entire area, resulting in perfusion of overlying water column. Video data feed shows real time depth and temperature data acquisition. Initial temperature variation is due primarily to operator-controlled sampling arm movement used to locate primary vent flow as determined by maximum temperature. Double arrows indicate positions of two vent orifices emitting high temperature water (note shimmering). For scale, the diameter of the sampling arm (shown with strips of black tape) is 2.5 cm. Video provided by Eastern Oceanics LLC.
Movie S2. ROV reconnaissance of relic geothermal features in the West Thumb region of Yellowstone Lake floor; a 75 sec. video excerpt from an ROV-acquired video. No active vents were observed at this specific location. Video provided by Eastern Oceanics LLC.
Movie S3. Otter Vent study site, Yellowstone Lake. A 60 sec. excerpt from an ROV-acquired video showing the ROV sampling arm collecting water for microbiological and chemical analyses from one of several vent openings at this site. Video data feed (lower portion of video window) shows real time depth and temperature data acquisition. Because of the shallow location, phototrophic growth is prolific, including what is believed to be some macrophytes in cooler areas not directly impacted by vent emissions. Video provided by Eastern Oceanics LLC.
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