Table S1. Iron transporters in marine prokaryotes. Columns list the number of homologues to a particular gene found in each genome.

Table S2. P-values for associations between iron transport and siderophore biosynthesis genes in marine prokaryotes that were isolated from seawater. Data on the presence or absence of genes in genomes were tested for associations between genes using Fisher’s exact test, correcting the P-values for multiple testing using the Bonferroni correction (n = 120). Significant (P ≤ 0.05) positive associations are in bold, and significant negative associations are in bold and italicized. P-values greater than 1 after Bonferroni correction were set to 1. Some of the genes listed in the table are abbreviated: ATP, Fe3+ ABC ATPase; Perm, Fe3+ ABC permease; Bind, Fe3+ ABC periplasmic binding protein; Hydrox, Hydroxamate transport TBDTs; Catechol, Catecholate transport TBDTs; Heme, Haem transport TBDTs; B12, Vitamin B12 transport TBDTs; NRPS, NRPS condensation domain; Synth, siderophore synthetase; Trans, NIS acetyl transferase.

Table S3. Frequency of iron transport genes in GOS metagenome samples (genes per genome).

Table S4. Top blast hit of putative GOS Prochlorococcus haem TBDTs mate pairs when blasted against the set of marine prokaryotic genomes. Most of the hits are to other Prochlorococcus genes supporting the claim that the haem TBDTs are in Prochlorococcus genomes in the environment.

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