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Fig. S1. Laboratory-scale experiment to identify microbe-induced corrosion (biocorrosion). Carbon steel slides were incubated in autoclaved seawater (flasks number 1 to 4, experimental controls, chemical corrosion only) or natural seawater (flasks number 5 to 12, chemical corrosion plus biocorrosion): (A) at the beginning of the slide incubation experiment, (B) after incubation of 1 day, (C) after incubation of 3 days and (D) after incubation of 7 days.

Fig. S2. Rarefaction curves of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

Fig. S3. Phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA genes constructed from an alignment of 835 bp long nucleic acid sequences using the neighbour-joining method with the Jukes-Cantor model for distance calculation. The branch distances represent nucleotide substitution rate, and the scale bar represents the expected number of changes per homologous nucleotide position. Bootstrap values greater than 50% (based on 100 bootstrap resamplings) were shown at the nodes. The Proteobacteria group was denoted with a shadowed wedge for their phylogenetic positions, for which separate trees were presented in Figs 2 and S4. The 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained in this study were shown in bold, along with their distribution in each clone library as depicted in the parentheses.

Fig. S4. Subtree constructed from an alignment of betaproteobacterial and gammaproteobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from the constructed clone libraries. See the legends of Figs S3 and 2 for phylogenetic analysis details.

Fig. S5. Cumulative percentage of OTUs associated with the major microbial groups detected in the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

Fig. S6. Cumulative percentage of clones associated with the major microbial groups detected in the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

Table S1. Change in the composition of surface-colonizing bacteria as function of an increase in carbon steel coupon incubation time in coastal seawaters revealed via analyses of the constructed bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

Table S2. Efficiency and sensitivity of individual qPCR standard curves determined using group-specific reference plasmid DNA.

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