Present addresses: Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Genetik, Berlin, Germany.
Population structure of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex according to multilocus sequence typing
Article first published online: 27 SEP 2011
© 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Thematic Issue: Human Microbiome
Volume 13, Issue 12, pages 3114–3127, December 2011
How to Cite
Laukkanen-Ninios, R., Didelot, X., Jolley, K. A., Morelli, G., Sangal, V., Kristo, P., Brehony, C., Imori, P. F. M., Fukushima, H., Siitonen, A., Tseneva, G., Voskressenskaya, E., Falcao, J. P., Korkeala, H., Maiden, M. C. J., Mazzoni, C., Carniel, E., Skurnik, M. and Achtman, M. (2011), Population structure of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex according to multilocus sequence typing. Environmental Microbiology, 13: 3114–3127. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02588.x
- Issue published online: 30 NOV 2011
- Article first published online: 27 SEP 2011
- Received 8 June, 2011; accepted 12 August, 2011.
Multilocus sequence analysis of 417 strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis revealed that it is a complex of four populations, three of which have been previously assigned species status [Y. pseudotuberculosis sensu stricto (s.s.), Yersinia pestis and Yersinia similis] and a fourth population, which we refer to as the Korean group, which may be in the process of speciation. We detected clear signs of recombination within Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. as well as imports from Y. similis and the Korean group. The sources of genetic diversification within Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. were approximately equally divided between recombination and mutation, whereas recombination has not yet been demonstrated in Y. pestis, which is also much more genetically monomorphic than is Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. Most Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. belong to a diffuse group of sequence types lacking clear population structure, although this species contains a melibiose-negative clade that is present globally in domesticated animals. Yersinia similis corresponds to the previously identified Y. pseudotuberculosis genetic type G4, which is probably not pathogenic because it lacks the virulence factors that are typical for Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s. In contrast, Y. pseudotuberculosis s.s., the Korean group and Y. pestis can all cause disease in humans.