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Fig. S1. Relative abundance of bacterial taxa in control (top) and bloom (bottom) microcosms based on taxonomic analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes.

Fig. S2. Rarefaction plot of functional gene categories (clusters of orthologous groups; COGs) in four experimental marine metatranscriptomes.

Fig. S3. Taxonomic assignment of transcripts under bloom and non-bloom conditions. There was only one sequence assigned to the GGDEF domain COG (COG2199) in the control library, and that sequence binned to a Deltaproteobacteria gene.

Fig. S4. Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (COG3808; hppA) and proteorhodopsin proteins translocate protons across biological membranes; the resulting proton gradient is available for ATP generation via ATP synthase. Transcripts for both membrane-bound inorganic pyrophosphatases and ATP synthase subunit A were significantly less abundant under bloom conditions.

Table S1. Marine genomes containing an inorganic pyrophosphatase (hppA) homologue. The R. rubrum ATCC 11170 inorganic diphosphatase sequence (YP_425238) was used as a query in BLASTp analysis against the NCBI All Genomes database using an E-value cut-off of ≤ 10−5. Hits were manually checked by reanalysis against the NCBI RefSeq database.

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