Enterobactin is required for biofilm development in reduced-genome Escherichia coli
Article first published online: 9 OCT 2011
© 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Thematic Issue: Human Microbiome
Volume 13, Issue 12, pages 3149–3162, December 2011
How to Cite
May, T. and Okabe, S. (2011), Enterobactin is required for biofilm development in reduced-genome Escherichia coli. Environmental Microbiology, 13: 3149–3162. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02607.x
- Issue published online: 30 NOV 2011
- Article first published online: 9 OCT 2011
- Received 7 September, 2010; accepted 6 September, 2011.
A variety of bacterial cell surface structures and quorum signalling molecules play a role in biofilm development in Escherichia coli. However, here we show that an engineered reduced-genome E. coli mutant that lacks 17.6% of the parental E. coli genome, including the genes involved in the synthesis of various cell surface structures, such as type 1 fimbriae, curli, exopolysaccharide polymers and the autoinducer-2 signalling molecule, is able to develop mature biofilms. Using temporal gene expression profiling, we investigated phenotypic changes in reduced-genome biofilms in relation with the genes encoding the synthesis of different amino acids that were differentially expressed during biofilm formation. We identified and characterized entB, marR, dosC, mcbR and yahK genes, as involved in biofilm formation by the reduced-genome E. coli. Of these, for a first time, we demonstrated that overproduction of entB and yahK, which encode an enterobactin for iron transport and a hypothetical oxidoreductase protein, respectively, promoted biofilm development and maturation. Our results indicate that specific types of genes contribute to phenotypic changes in reduced-genome E. coli biofilms. In addition, this work demonstrates that the functions of biofilm-specific genes could be analysed through experiments using the reduced-genome E. coli.