Fig. S1. Specificity test of the probe EG28-03. All the tested strains are visualized by epifluorescence hybridized both with the EG28-03 probe and a general haptophyta probe (Pym-02, Simon et al. 2000) and by cross-polarization. Haptophytes: A. Emiliania huxleyi RCC1216 (mixture of diploid and haploid cells); B. E huxleyi RCC1249 (mixture of diploid and haploid cells); C. Gephyrocapsa oceanica RCC1315 (mixture of diploid and haploid cells); D. Isochrysis galbana RCC1347; E. I. galbana RCC1349; F. Pleurochrysis carterae RCC1402; G. Algirosphaera robusta RCC1128; H. Syracosphaera pulchra RCC1131; I. Prymnesium sp. RCC1348; J. Chrysochromulina sp. RCC1186; K. Phaeocystis sp. CCMP2496; L. Pavlova sp. RCC1543. Non-haptophytes (only tested with EG28-03): M. Rhodomonas salina RCC20; N. Skeletonema costatum RCC70; O. Amphidinium carterae RCC88; P. Dunaliella tertiolecta RCC6. Scale bar = 5 μm.

Fig. S2. E. huxleyi calcified and non-calcified cell dynamics in the English Chanel (Astan station, offshore Roscoff, France) and Raunefjord (Bergen, Norway).

Table S1. List of haploid-diploid and haploid specific gene primers.

Video S1. Movie of two autotrophic flagellated swimming bound to a common coccolith agglomerate during day 14 in mesocosm 3. Cells were visualized by phase contrast. The movie was taken with a standard digital camera (SONY cyber-shot 5.1 mega pixels) directly through the microscope eyepiece. Magnification = 2500×.

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