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Fig. S1. A sulfur-rich mud-pool in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; inset, sulfur crystals forming in a vent in the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat (West Indies).

Fig. S2. Small snottites (red-brown) hanging from a thick deposit of microcrystalline gypsum (white) formed as a by-product of sulfuric acid corrosion of limestone in the Frasassi Cave system, Italy (A). Elemental sulfur (small yellow flowers) occurs in close association with biofilms on the gypsum surface. Individual snottites in the photo have pH values between 0 and 1.5. Photo credit: Jennifer Macalady and Sandro Mariani. (B) Snottites hanging from gypsum crystals formed as a by-product of sulfuric acid corrosion of limestone in the Frasassi Cave system, Italy. Individual snottites have pH values between 0 and 2. Gypsum needles are 1–3 cm long. Photo credit: Jennifer Macalady and Sandro Mariani.

Fig. S3. Sulfide mineral containing tailings being discharged into a pond after mineral processing to produce a concentrate. Photo credit: Olena Rzhepishevska.

Fig. S4. Microbial streamers in an underground sulfidic acid mine drainage stream in Scandinavia (stream approximately 50 cm wide; pH 2.5).

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