Authors contributed equally.
Anaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux and decoupling from sulfate reduction
Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2012
© 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Thematic issue: Sulfur Metabolism
Volume 14, Issue 10, pages 2726–2740, October 2012
How to Cite
Wankel, S. D., Adams, M. M., Johnston, D. T., Hansel, C. M., Joye, S. B. and Girguis, P. R. (2012), Anaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux and decoupling from sulfate reduction. Environmental Microbiology, 14: 2726–2740. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2012.02825.x
- Issue online: 3 OCT 2012
- Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 27 JUN 2012 11:49PM EST
- Received 11 November, 2011; revised 3 May, 2012; accepted 17 June, 2012.
Fig. S1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) images of ANME-1 archaea and Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus sulfate reducing bacteria from three different sediment temperatures (20°C, 55°C and 90°C). Probe specificity and hybridization conditions are described in Girguis and colleagues (2005) and the supporting information.
Fig. S2. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree illustrating the relationships of 16 ssu rRNA ANME-1 sequences recovered from Middle Valley sediments to archaeal sequences from NCBI non-redundant database. Phylogenetic tree was generated with FastTree 2.0.0 (Price et al., 2010) using minimum-evolution subtree-pruning-regrafting and maximum-likelihood nearest-neighbour interchanges. Local support values shown are based on the Shimodaira-Hasegawa (SH) test. The tree was rooted to Pyrodictium occultum (M21087). Scale = 0.09 substitutions per site.
Fig. S3. Fe K-edge XANES (left) and EXAFS (right) spectra for Middle Valley sediments. As revealed by a shift in the inflection point of the absorption edge to higher energies, XANES spectra reveal a dominance of Fe(II) in the upper sediments (0–3 cm) and mixed Fe(II)/Fe(III) in deeper sediments (below 6 cm). Spectra for the depths 0–3 and 3–6 cm, 6–9 and 9–12 cm, and 12–15 and 15–20 cm were nearly identical – one representative spectrum is shown for each interval. Standard spectra for iron sulfide (FeS) and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) are included to illustrate the binding energies for Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. The Fe EXAFS spectra of sediments collected at 6–9 cm (black solid line) can be fit with a linear combination of standard spectra composed of green rust sulfate (32 mole %), siderite (24 mole %), and various Fe sulfides, including pyrrhotite, pyrite and mackinawite (44 mole %) (χ2red = 1.9; R-factor = 0.06).
Table S1. Total cell densities in sediments incubated on the thermal gradient, continuous flow bioreactor (cells ml sediment−1). Cells counts were obtained by filtering sediment cell suspensions, staining with SYBR I and counting at 100X on an epifluorescent scope with a gridded ocular.
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