Fig. S1. An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonising L. cruciata (B, C) and C. conicum (A, D) as seen under transmission electron microscope. (A) The endophyte shows a coiled-like morphology, with hyphae having the same diameter. The fungus is always surrounded by a perifungal membrane (arrows); Liverwort cell lumen (cl). (B) Detail of hypha engaged in a cell to cell transition; perifungal membrane (arrows), liverwort cell lumen (cl). (C, D) Collapsed and degenerated hyphae (ch) and recolonization events of old hyphae (oh) by new ones (arrowheads) were observed. cl: liverwort cell lumen. Scale bars: (A) 2.7 μm; (B, D) 2.3 μm; (C) 3 μm.

Fig. S2. FISH labelling of AM fungi and BLOs inside a section of L. cruciata. Bright-field (A), red (B) and green (C) fluorescent images corresponding to Fig. 4A and B. BLOs are visible in (B) as red fluorescent coccoid spots (arrowheads), labelled by the BLO-specific probe BLOsADf2. The fungal cytoplasm (black arrowheads) is labelled in green (C) by the AMF-specific probe AML2ADf. cw: liverwort cell wall. Bars: 15 μm.

Fig. S3. FISH of BLOs inside a section of L. cruciata. (A) Bright-field image showing an arbuscule (ar) inside a parenchyma cell. (B) BLOsADf2 probe fluorescence (red) highlights red coccoid dots (arrowheads) in some of the arbuscule hyphae; a diffuse reddish autofluorescence marks the liverwort cell walls (cw). (C) The Buchnera-specific ApisP2a probe (green) was used as a negative control; no specific signal can be discriminated. (D) Overlay of the red and green fluorescence shown in (B) and (C). Bars: 15 μm.

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