Phenazine compounds represent a large class of bacterial metabolites that are produced by some fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and a few other bacterial genera. Phenazines were first noted in the scientific literature over 100 years ago, but for a long time were considered to be pigments of uncertain function. Following evidence that phenazines act as virulence factors in the opportunistic human and animal pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and are actively involved in the suppression of plant pathogens, interest in these compounds has broadened to include investigations of their genetics, biosynthesis, activity as electron shuttles, and contribution to the ecology and physiology of the cells that produce them. This minireview highlights some recent and exciting insights into the diversity, frequency and ecological roles of phenazines produced by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.