SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Summary

Infection with bacteria such as Chlamydia pneumonia, Helicobacter pylori or Porphyromonas gingivalis may be triggering the secretion of inflammatory cytokines that leads to atherogenesis. The mechanisms by which the innate immune recognition of these pathogens could lead to atherosclerosis remain unclear. In this study, using human vascular endothelial cells or HEK-293 cells engineered to express pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), we set out to determine Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and functionally associated PRRs involved in the innate recognition of and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from H. pylori or P. gingivalis. Using siRNA interference or recombinant expression of cooperating PRRs, we show that H. pylori and P. gingivalis LPS-induced cell activation is mediated through TLR2. Human vascular endothelial cell activation was found to be lipid raft-dependent and to require the formation of heterotypic receptor complexes comprising of TLR2, TLR1, CD36 and CD11b/CD18. In addition, we report that LPS from these bacterial strains are able to antagonize TLR4. This antagonistic activity of H. pylori or P. gingivalis LPS, as well as their TLR2 activation capability may be associated with their ability to contribute to atherosclerosis.