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Summary

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common facultative intracellular pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis in millions of people worldwide. Intracellular survival and replication are important virulence determinants and the bacteria can be found in a variety of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells in vivo. Invasion of host cells and intracellular survival are dependent on two type III secretion systems, T3SS1 and T3SS2, each of which translocates a distinct set of effector proteins. However, other virulence factors including ion transporters, superoxide dismutase, flagella and fimbriae are also involved in accessing and utilizing the intracellular niche.