Galectin-3, a marker for vacuole lysis by invasive pathogens
Article first published online: 27 NOV 2009
© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Volume 12, Issue 4, pages 530–544, April 2010
How to Cite
Paz, I., Sachse, M., Dupont, N., Mounier, J., Cederfur, C., Enninga, J., Leffler, H., Poirier, F., Prevost, M.-C., Lafont, F. and Sansonetti, P. (2010), Galectin-3, a marker for vacuole lysis by invasive pathogens. Cellular Microbiology, 12: 530–544. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2009.01415.x
- Issue published online: 8 MAR 2010
- Article first published online: 27 NOV 2009
- Received 27 October, 2009; accepted 2 November, 2009.
Shigella bacteria invade macrophages and epithelial cells and following internalization lyse the phagosome and escape to the cytoplasm. Galectin-3, an abundant protein in macrophages and epithelial cells, belongs to a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins, the galectins, with many proposed functions in immune response, development, differentiation, cancer and infection. Galectins are synthesized as cytosolic proteins and following non-classical secretion bind extracellular beta-galactosides. Here we analysed the localization of galectin-3 following entry of Shigella into the cytosol and detected a striking phenomenon. Very shortly after bacterial invasion, intracellular galectin-3 accumulated in structures in vicinity to internalized bacteria. By using immuno-electron microscopy analysis we identified galectin-3 in membranes localized in the phagosome and in tubules and vesicles that derive from the endocytic pathway. We also demonstrated that the binding of galectin-3 to host N-acetyllactosamine-containing glycans, was required for forming the structures. Accumulation of the structures was a type three secretion system-dependent process. More specifically, existence of structures was strictly dependent upon lysis of the phagocytic vacuole and could be shown also by Gram-positive Listeria and Salmonella sifA mutant. We suggest that galectin-3-containing structures may serve as a potential novel tool to spot vacuole lysis.