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- ATR1 and ATR13: rapidly evolving oomycete effectors promote disease, also of bacteria
- AVR3a: distinct amino acids condition avirulence and virulence
- Phytophthora sojae avirulence effectors: copy number variation associated with evasion of host immunity
- Crinklers: an additional large and diverse family of oomycete effectors
- Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence effectors: discovery by genome resequencing
- AvrL567: effector avirulence and virulence analysed using protein structure
- AvrLm1, AvrLm6 and AvrLm4-7: effector evolution in gene-poor isochores
- AVR1, AVR2, AVR3: virulence and avirulence determinants in the tomato xylem
- Enzyme inhibitors: effectors from unrelated species inhibit the same host plant protease
- Host selective toxins: effectors from necrotrophic fungi that promote disease susceptibility in a light-dependent manner
- Nep1-like proteins: cytolytic toxins from phylogenetically unrelated microorganisms
- Outlook: what are the targets of filamentous pathogen effectors?
Filamentous pathogens, such as plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes, secrete an arsenal of effector molecules that modulate host innate immunity and enable parasitic infection. It is now well accepted that these effectors are key pathogenicity determinants that enable parasitic infection. In this review, we report on the most interesting features of a representative set of filamentous pathogen effectors and highlight recent findings. We also list and describe all the linear motifs reported to date in filamentous pathogen effector proteins. Some of these motifs appear to define domains that mediate translocation inside host cells.