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Summary

Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates many important bacterial processes. Freely diffusible intracellular c-di-GMP is determined by the action of metabolizing enzymes that allow integration of numerous input signals. c-di-GMP specifically regulates multiple cellular processes by binding to diverse target molecules. This review highlights important questions in research into the mechanisms of c-di-GMP signalling and its role in bacterial physiology.