Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes a disease which appears to affect multiple cell types and tissues. The acute phase is manifested by a non-fatal febrile illness, polyarthralgia and maculopapular rashes in adults, but with recurrent arthralgia that may linger for months during convalescence. The issue of cellular and tissue tropism of CHIKV has elicited interest primarily because of this lingering incapacitating chronic joint pain, as well as clear encephalopathy in severe cases among neonates during the re-emergence of the virus in recent epidemics. The principle cell types productively infected by CHIKV are skin fibroblasts, epithelial cells and lymphoid tissues. There is controversy as to whether CHIKV productively infects haematopoietic cells and neurones/glia. CHIKV infection triggers rapid and robust innate immune responses which quickly clears the acute phase infection. However, significant acute as well as chronic infection of less obvious cell types, such as monocytes, neurones/glia or even CNS neural progenitors may conceivably occur. There is therefore a need to ascertain the full range potential of CHIKV tropism, fully understand the cellular responses triggered during the acute the convalescent phases, and explore possible cell types that might be the source of chronic problems associated with CHIKV infection.