The study was supported by a grant from Fertin Pharma A/S, Vejle, Denmark.
The appetite-suppressant effect of nicotine is enhanced by caffeine†
Article first published online: 18 NOV 2004
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Volume 7, Issue 4, pages 327–333, July 2005
How to Cite
Jessen, A., Buemann, B., Toubro, S., Skovgaard, I. M. and Astrup, A. (2005), The appetite-suppressant effect of nicotine is enhanced by caffeine. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 7: 327–333. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2004.00389.x
- Issue published online: 18 NOV 2004
- Article first published online: 18 NOV 2004
- Received 5 December 2003; returned for revision 15 March 2004; revised version accepted 12 April 2004
- visual analogue scale
Aim: To test whether the anorectic effect of nicotine may be amplified by caffeine.
Methods: Chewing gums with nicotine and caffeine were administered to 12 healthy young men of normal weight. Different combinations of 0, 1 or 2 mg of nicotine and 0, 50 or 100 mg of caffeine were applied during a 2-h period in a randomized, double blind, cross over design. Appetite sensations were measured using visual analogue scales.
Results: Hunger and prospective food consumption were negatively associated with the increasing doses of nicotine, whereas satiety and fullness were positively associated with the increasing doses of nicotine (p < 0.05). Caffeine appeared to amplify the effects of nicotine on hunger and fullness as a caffeine × nicotine × time interaction was observed in these scores (p < 0.05). The 2-mg dose of nicotine in combination with the 100-mg dose of caffeine caused nausea in four of the non-smokers. However, the effects of nicotine and the caffeine × nicotine × time interaction persisted after the exclusion of these subjects.
Conclusion: Caffeine added to nicotine chewing gum appears to amplify its attenuating effects on appetite and the combinations of 1-mg of nicotine with caffeine seem to be well tolerated.