Long-term effects of exenatide therapy over 82 weeks on glycaemic control and weight in over-weight metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus


Dennis D. Kim, MD, Senior Director, Medical Affairs, Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 9360 Towne Centre Dr, Suite 110, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.


Aim:  The ability of the incretin mimetic exenatide to improve glycaemic control and reduce body weight was assessed over 82 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes failing to achieve glycaemic control with maximally effective doses of metformin.

Methods:  In this interim 82-week analysis, 150 (total cohort) of an eligible population of 183 patients opted to continue exenatide treatment in an uncontrolled open-label extension of a 30-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Of these, 92 patients (completer cohort) achieved 82 weeks of exenatide therapy. Patients continued metformin throughout the study.

Results:  At the end of the placebo-controlled trial, exenatide resulted in an haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reduction from baseline of −1.0 ± 0.1% (mean ± SE) (exenatide treatment arms), with durable HbA1c reductions after 82 weeks of −1.3 ± 0.1%. The percent of patients who achieved HbA1c≤7% at weeks 30 and 82 was 46 and 59% respectively. After 30 weeks, exenatide caused a reduction in weight from baseline of −3.0 ± 0.6 kg, with a progressive reduction in weight of −5.3 ± 0.8 kg after 82 weeks. In addition, exenatide treatment produced clinically significant improvements in cardiovascular risk factors after 82 weeks. The most frequent adverse event after 30 and 82 weeks of exenatide was nausea, which was generally of mild-or-moderate intensity. It decreased in incidence after initiation in the controlled trial and the uncontrolled open-label extension. Hypoglycaemia was rare, with no severe events.

Conclusion:  Exenatide was generally well tolerated, producing a durable reduction in HbA1c and a progressive reduction in weight over 82 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes failing to achieve glycaemic control with metformin.