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Keywords:

  • DPP-4 inhibition;
  • glucagon-like peptide-1;
  • glucagon-like peptide 2;
  • glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide;
  • incretin effect;
  • insulin secretion;
  • peptide YY;
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus

Aim: To examine the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, on gastrointestinal hormone responses to a standardized mixed meal and beta cell secretory capacity, measured as glucose and non-glucose induced insulin secretion during a hyperglycaemic clamp, in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Method: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over 12 weeks in which 24 patients with T2DM were randomized to receive either sitagliptin (Januvia) 100 mg qd or placebo as an add-on therapy to metformin. In week 0, 1 and 12 patients underwent a meal test and a 90-min 20 mM hyperglycaemic clamp with 5 g of l-arginine infusion. Main outcome measure was postprandial total glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentration. Additional measures were insulin and C-peptide, glycaemic control, intact and total peptide YY (PYY) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and intact glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and GLP-1.

Results: All patients [sitagliptin n = 12, age: 59.5 (39–64) years, HbA1c: 8.0 (7.3–10.0)%, BMI: 33.2 (29.3–39.4); placebo n = 12, age: 60 (31–72) years, HbA1c: 7.7 (7.1–9.8)%, BMI: 30.7 (25.7–40.5)] [median (range)] completed the trial. Sitagliptin treatment improved glycaemic control, had no effect on total GLP-1, GIP or intact GLP-2, but reduced total PYY and PYY3- 36, and increased PYY1- 36 and intact incretin hormones. Sitagliptin improved first and second phases of beta cell secretion and maximal secretory capacity. All effects were achieved after 1 week. No significant changes occurred in the placebo group.

Conclusion: The postprandial responses of total GLP-1 and GIP and intact GLP-2 were unaltered. PYY degradation was prevented. Glucose and non-glucose induced beta cell secretion was improved. There was no difference in responses to sitagliptin between 1 and 12 weeks of treatment.