SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Sims EA, Danforth E Jr, Horton ES, Bray GA, Glennon JA, Salans LB. Endocrine and metabolic effects of experimental obesity in man. Recent Prog Horm Res 1973; 29: 457496.
  • 2
    Haslam DW, James WP. Obesity. Lancet 2005; 366: 11971209.
  • 3
    Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rotnitzky A, Manson JE. Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes mellitus in women. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122: 481486.
  • 4
    Field AE, Coakley EH, Must A et al. Impact of overweight on the risk of developing common chronic diseases during a 10-year period. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 15811586.
  • 5
    Hart CL, Hole DJ, Lawlor DA, Vey Smith G. How many cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus are due to being overweight in middle age? Evidence from the Midspan prospective cohort studies using mention of diabetes mellitus on hospital discharge or death records. Diabet Med 2007; 24: 7380.
  • 6
    Narayan KM, Boyle JP, Thompson TJ, Gregg EW, Williamson DF. Effect of BMI on lifetime risk for diabetes in the U.S. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 15621566.
  • 7
    Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Walker M. Overweight and obesity and weight change in middle aged men: impact on cardiovascular disease and diabetes. J Epidemiol Community Health 2005; 59: 134139.
  • 8
    Montague CT, O’Rahilly S. The perils of portliness: causes and consequences of visceral adiposity. Diabetes 2000; 49: 883888.
  • 9
    Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 10471053.
  • 10
    Mohan V, Mathur P, Deepa R et al. Urban rural differences in prevalence of self-reported diabetes in India – the WHO-ICMR Indian NCD risk factor surveillance. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2008; 80: 159168.
  • 11
    Xu L, Xie X, Wang S, Wang Y, Jonas JB. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in China. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2008; 116: 6970.
  • 12
    American Diabetes Association. Complications of diabetes in the United States, 2008. Available from URL: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-statistics/complications.jsp. Last accessed on 25 September 2009.
  • 13
    Bilous R. Microvascular disease: what does the UKPDS tell us about diabetic nephropathy? Diabet Med 2008; 25(Suppl. 2): 2529.
  • 14
    Giorda CB, Avogaro A, Maggini M et al. Recurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes: epidemiology and risk factors. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 21542159.
  • 15
    Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA et al. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA 2003; 289: 7679.
  • 16
    World Health Organization. Fact Sheet Number 311, 2008. Available at URL: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html. Last accessed on 23 September 2009.
  • 17
    Martin LF, Robinson A, Moore BJ. Socioeconomic issues affecting the treatment of obesity in the new millennium. Pharmacoeconomics 2000; 18: 335353.
  • 18
    Cheng TO. Fast food, automobiles, television and obesity epidemic in Chinese children. Int J Cardiol 2005; 98: 173174.
  • 19
    Misra A, Vikram NK, Sharma R, Basit A. High prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors in urban children in India and Pakistan highlights immediate need to initiate primary prevention program for diabetes and coronary heart disease in schools. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2006; 71: 101102.
  • 20
    Newsome CA, Shiell AW, Fall CH, Phillips DI, Shier R, Law CM. Is birth weight related to later glucose and insulin metabolism? – a systematic review. Diabet Med 2003; 20: 339348.
  • 21
    Bray GA. Etiology and pathogenesis of obesity. Clin Cornerstone 1999; 2: 115.
  • 22
    Kiess W, Galler A, Reich A et al. Clinical aspects of obesity in childhood and adolescence. Obes Rev 2001; 2: 2936.
  • 23
    Samama P, Rumennik L, Grippo JF. The melanocortin receptor MCR4 controls fat consumption. Regul Pept 2003; 113: 8588.
  • 24
    Kurokawa N, Nakai K, Kameo S, Liu ZM, Satoh H. Association of BMI with the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism in Japanese: meta-analysis. Obes Res 2001; 9: 741745.
  • 25
    Widen E, Lehto M, Kanninen T, Walston J, Shuldiner AR, Groop LC. Association of a polymorphism in the beta 3-adrenergic-receptor gene with features of the insulin resistance syndrome in Finns. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 348351.
  • 26
    Halberg N, Henriksen M, Soderhamn N et al. Effect of intermittent fasting and refeeding on insulin action in healthy men. J Appl Physiol 2005; 99: 21282136.
  • 27
    Neel JV. Diabetes mellitus: a “thrifty” genotype rendered detrimental by “progress”? Am J Hum Genet 1962; 14: 353362.
  • 28
    Speakman JR. Thrifty genes for obesity and the metabolic syndrome–time to call off the search? Diab Vasc Dis Res 2006; 3: 711.
  • 29
    Haffner SM. Relationship of metabolic risk factors and development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006; 14(Suppl. 3): 121S127S.
  • 30
    Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Whincup PH, Walker M. Role of risk factors for major coronary heart disease events with increasing length of follow up. Heart 1999; 81: 374379.
  • 31
    Wilson PW, Kannel WB, Silbershatz H, D’Agostino RB. Clustering of metabolic factors and coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 11041109.
  • 32
    Siegel D, Swislocki AL. Effects of antihypertensives on glucose metabolism. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2007; 5: 211219.
  • 33
    Sharma AM, Pischon T, Hardt S, Kunz I, Luft FC. Hypothesis: Beta-adrenergic receptor blockers and weight gain: a systematic analysis. Hypertension 2001; 37: 250254.
  • 34
    Williams B. The obese hypertensive: the weight of evidence against beta-blockers. Circulation 2007; 115: 19731974.
  • 35
    Fava M. Weight gain and antidepressants. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61(Suppl. 11): 3741.
  • 36
    Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, Clouse RE, Lustman PJ. The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 10691078.
  • 37
    Thomas J, Jones G, Scarinci I, Brantley P. A descriptive and comparative study of the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in low-income adults with type 2 diabetes and other chronic illnesses. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 23112317.
  • 38
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32(Suppl. 1): S13S61.
  • 39
    Glucophage [prescribing information]. Princeton: Bristol-Myers Squibb, 2008.
  • 40
    Bonora E. Antidiabetic medications in overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes: drawbacks of current drugs and potential advantages of incretin-based treatment on body weight. Int J Clin Pract Suppl 2007 Aug; (154): 1928.
  • 41
    Dormandy JA, Charbonnel B, Eckland DJ et al. Secondary prevention of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the PROactive Study (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366: 12791289.
  • 42
    Gerstein HC, Yusuf S, Bosch J et al. Effect of rosiglitazone on the frequency of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006; 368: 10961105.
  • 43
    Hermansen K, Mortensen LS. Bodyweight changes associated with antihyperglycaemic agents in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drug Saf 2007; 30: 11271142.
  • 44
    Kahn SE, Haffner SM, Heise MA et al. Glycemic durability of rosiglitazone, metformin, or glyburide monotherapy. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 24272443.
  • 45
    Haak T, Tiengo A, Draeger E, Suntum M, Waldhausl W. Lower within-subject variability of fasting blood glucose and reduced weight gain with insulin detemir compared to NPH insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 2005; 7: 5664.
  • 46
    Raslova K, Tamer SC, Clauson P, Karl D. Insulin detemir results in less weight gain than NPH insulin when used in basal-bolus therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and this advantage increases with baseline body mass index. Clin Drug Investig 2007; 27: 279285.
  • 47
    Meneghini LF, Rosenberg KH, Koenen C, Merilainen MJ, Luddeke HJ. Insulin detemir improves glycaemic control with less hypoglycaemia and no weight gain in patients with type 2 diabetes who were insulin naive or treated with NPH or insulin glargine: clinical practice experience from a German subgroup of the PREDICTIVE study. Diabetes Obes Metab 2007; 9: 418427.
  • 48
    Yu AP, Wu EQ, Birnbaum HG et al. Short-term economic impact of body weight change among patients with type 2 diabetes treated with antidiabetic agents: analysis using claims, laboratory, and medical record data. Curr Med Res Opin 2007; 23: 21572169.
  • 49
    DeFronzo RA. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Med Clin North Am 2004; 88: 787835, ix.
  • 50
    Dunning BE, Gerich JE. The role of alpha-cell dysregulation in fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev 2007; 28: 253283.
  • 51
    Weyer C, Bogardus C, Mott DM, Pratley RE. The natural history of insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1999; 104: 787794.
  • 52
    Pratley R. Islet dysfunction: an underlying defect in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2006; 35(Suppl. 1): 611.
  • 53
    U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study Group. UKPDS UK prospective diabetes study 16. Overview of 6 years' therapy of type II diabetes: a progressive disease. Diabetes 1995; 44: 12491258.
  • 54
    Baggio LL, Drucker DJ. Biology of incretins: GLP-1 and GIP. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: 21312157.
  • 55
    Nauck MA, Heimesaat MM, Orskov C, Holst JJ, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Preserved incretin activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7–36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1993; 91: 301307.
  • 56
    Lugari R, Dei Cas A, Ugolotti D et al. Evidence for early impairment of glucagon-like peptide 1-induced insulin secretion in human type 2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetes. Horm Metab Res 2002; 34: 150154.
  • 57
    Nauck MA, Walberg J, Vethacke A et al. Blood glucose control in healthy subject and patients receiving intravenous glucose infusion or total parenteral nutrition using glucagon-like peptide 1. Regul Pept 2004; 118: 8997.
  • 58
    Toft-Nielsen MB, Damholt MB, Madsbad S et al. Determinants of the impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 in type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 37173723.
  • 59
    Bays H, Mandarino L, DeFronzo RA. Role of the adipocyte, free fatty acids, and ectopic fat in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor agonists provide a rational therapeutic approach. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 463478.
  • 60
    McGarry JD. Banting lecture 2001: dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2002; 51: 718.
  • 61
    Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Scherzinger AL et al. Insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and abdominal fat: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study. Diabetes 2003; 52: 24902496.
  • 62
    Dresner A, Laurent D, Marcucci M et al. Effects of free fatty acids on glucose transport and IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. J Clin Invest 1999; 103: 253259.
  • 63
    Roden M. Muscle triglycerides and mitochondrial function: possible mechanisms for the development of type 2 diabetes. Int J Obes (Lond) 2005; 29(Suppl. 2): S111S115.
  • 64
    Donath MY, Ehses JA, Maedler K et al. Mechanisms of beta-cell death in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2005; 54 (Suppl. 2): S108S113.
  • 65
    Abbasi F, Chu JW, Lamendola C et al. Discrimination between obesity and insulin resistance in the relationship with adiponectin. Diabetes 2004; 53: 585590.
  • 66
    Hotta K, Funahashi T, Arita Y et al. Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20: 15951599.
  • 67
    Chen BH, Song Y, Ding EL et al. Circulating levels of resistin and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women: results from two prospective cohorts. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 329334.
  • 68
    Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 393403.
  • 69
    Sjostrom C.D, Lissner L, Wedel H, Sjostrom L. Reduction in incidence of diabetes, hypertension and lipid disturbances after intentional weight loss induced by bariatric surgery: the SOS Intervention Study. Obes Res 1999; 7: 477484.
  • 70
    DeFronzo RA. Pharmacologic therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131: 281303.
  • 71
    Panten U, Schwanstecher M, Schwanstecher C. Sulfonylurea receptors and mechanism of sulfonylurea action. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1996; 104: 19.
  • 72
    Abdelrahman M, Sivarajah A, Thiemermann C. Beneficial effects of PPAR-gamma ligands in ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammation and shock. Cardiovasc Res 2005; 65: 772781.
  • 73
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. UKPDS Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998; 352: 837853.
  • 74
    Peyrot M, Rubin RR, Lauritzen T et al. Resistance to insulin therapy among patients and providers: results of the cross-national Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) study. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 26732679.
  • 75
    Peyrot M, Rubin RR, Lauritzen T, Snoek FJ, Matthews DR, Skovlund SE. Psychosocial problems and barriers to improved diabetes management: results of the Cross-National Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) Study. Diabet Med 2005; 22: 13791385.
  • 76
    Carlson MG, Campbell PJ. Intensive insulin therapy and weight gain in IDDM. Diabetes 1993; 42: 17001707.
  • 77
    Levemir [package insert]. 2005. Princeton, NJ and Bagsvaerd, Denmark, Novo Nordisk.
  • 78
    Hermansen K, Davies M, Derezinski T, Martinez RG, Clauson P, Home P. A 26-week, randomized, parallel, treat-to-target trial comparing insulin detemir with NPH insulin as add-on therapy to oral glucose-lowering drugs in insulin-naive people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 12691274.
  • 79
    Aronoff S, Rosenblatt S, Braithwaite S, Egan JW, Mathisen AL, Schneider RL. The Pioglitazone 001 Study Group. Pioglitazone hydrochloride monotherapy improves glycemic control in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: a 6-month randomized placebo-controlled dose-response study. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 16051611.
  • 80
    Raskin P, Rendell M, Riddle MC, Dole JF, Freed MI, Rosenstock J. A randomized trial of rosiglitazone therapy in patients with inadequately controlled insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 12261232.
  • 81
    Rosenstock J, Goldstein BJ, Vinik AI et al. Effect of early addition of rosiglitazone to sulphonylurea therapy in older type 2 diabetes patients (>60 years): the Rosiglitazone Early vs. SULphonylurea Titration (RESULT) study. Diabetes Obes Metab 2006; 8: 4957.
  • 82
    Nissen SE, Wolski K. Effect of rosiglitazone on the risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 24572471.
  • 83
    Home PD, Pocock SJ, Beck-Nielsen H et al. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes in oral agent combination therapy for type 2 diabetes (RECORD): a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial. Lancet 2009; 373: 21252135.
  • 84
    Lincoff AM, Wolski K, Nicholls SJ, Nissen SE. Pioglitazone and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. JAMA 2007; 298: 11801188.
  • 85
    Mannucci E, Monami M, Di BM et al. Cardiac safety profile of rosiglitazone: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials [Published online ahead of print]. Int J Cardiol 2009; doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard. 2009.01.064.
  • 86
    Nauck MA, Kleine N, Orskov C, Holst JJ, Willms B, Creutzfeldt W. Normalization of fasting hyperglycaemia by exogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 (7–36 amide) in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia 1993; 36: 741744.
  • 87
    Rachman J, Barrow BA, Levy JC, Turner RC. Near-normalisation of diurnal glucose concentrations by continuous administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in subjects with NIDDM. Diabetologia 1997; 40: 205211.
  • 88
    Flint A, Raben A, Astrup A, Holst JJ. Glucagon-like peptide 1 promotes satiety and suppresses energy intake in humans. J Clin Invest 1998; 101: 515520.
  • 89
    Gutzwiller JP, Drewe J, Goke B et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 promotes satiety and reduces food intake in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Am J Physiol 1999; 276: R1541R1544.
  • 90
    Colagiuri S, Frid A, Zdravkovic M, Le-Thi TDL, Vaag A. The once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide reduces systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2008; 57: A164A165.
  • 91
    Marre M, Shaw J, Brandle M et al. Liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analogue, added to a sulphonylurea over 26 weeks produces greater improvements in glycaemic and weight control compared with adding rosiglitazone or placebo in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (LEAD-1 SU). Diabet Med 2009; 26: 268278.
  • 92
    Russell-Jones D, Vaag A, Schmitz O et al. Liraglutide vs insulin glargine and placebo in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (LEAD-5 met+SU): a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia 2009; 52: 20462055.
  • 93
    Russell-Jones DS, Shaw J, Brandle M et al. The once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide reduces bodyweight in subjects with type 2 diabetes, irrespective of body mass index at baseline. Diabetes 2008; 57: A593A594.
  • 94
    Byetta (exenatide). 2003. Indianapolis, IN, Eli Lilly and Company.
  • 95
    Nielsen LL, Young AA, Parkes DG. Pharmacology of exenatide (synthetic exendin-4): a potential therapeutic for improved glycemic control of type 2 diabetes. Regul Pept 2004; 117: 7788.
  • 96
    Buse JB, Henry RR, Han J, Kim DD, Fineman MS, Baron AD. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control over 30 weeks in sulfonylurea-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 26282635.
  • 97
    DeFronzo RA, Ratner RE, Han J, Kim DD, Fineman MS, Baron AD. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control and weight over 30 weeks in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 10921100.
  • 98
    Kendall DM, Riddle MC, Rosenstock J et al. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control over 30 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and a sulfonylurea. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 10831091.
  • 99
    Buse JB, Klonoff DC, Nielsen LL et al. Metabolic effects of two years of exenatide treatment on diabetes, obesity, and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: an interim analysis of data from the open-label, uncontrolled extension of three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Clin Ther 2007; 29: 139153.
  • 100
    Drucker DJ, Buse JB, Taylor K et al. Exenatide once weekly versus twice daily for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study. Lancet 2008; 372: 12401250.
  • 101
    Cure P, Pileggi A, Alejandro R. Exenatide and rare adverse events. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 19691970.
  • 102
    Noel R, Braun D, Patterson R, Bloomgren G. Increased risk of acute pancreatitis observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Pancreas 2008; 37: 487.
  • 103
    US FDA Information for healthcare professionals: exenatide (marketed as Byetta). 2008. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm113705.htm. Last accessed on 03 December 2009.
  • 104
    Kim D, MacConell L, Zhuang D et al. Effects of once-weekly dosing of a long-acting release formulation of exenatide on glucose control and body weight in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 14871493.
  • 105
    Vilsboll T. Liraglutide: a once-daily GLP-1 analogue for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2007; 16: 231237.
  • 106
    Agerso H, Jensen LB, Elbrond B, Rolan P, Zdravkovic M. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of NN2211, a new long-acting GLP-1 derivative, in healthy men. Diabetologia 2002; 45: 195202.
  • 107
    Agerso H, Vicini P. Pharmacodynamics of NN2211, a novel long acting GLP-1 derivative. Eur J Pharm Sci 2003; 19: 141150.
  • 108
    Degn KB, Juhl CB, Sturis J et al. One week's treatment with the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 derivative liraglutide (NN2211) markedly improves 24-h glycemia and alpha- and beta-cell function and reduces endogenous glucose release in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2004; 53: 11871194.
  • 109
    Juhl CB, Hollingdal M, Sturis J et al. Bedtime administration of NN2211, a long-acting GLP-1 derivative, substantially reduces fasting and postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2002; 51: 424429.
  • 110
    Feinglos MN, Saad MF, Pi-Sunyer FX, An B, Santiago O. Effects of liraglutide (NN2211), a long-acting GLP-1 analogue, on glycaemic control and bodyweight in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2005; 22: 10161023.
  • 111
    Garber A, Henry R, Ratner R et al. Liraglutide versus glimepiride monotherapy for type 2 diabetes (LEAD-3 Mono): a randomised, 52-week, phase III, double-blind, parallel-treatment trial. Lancet 2009; 373: 473481.
  • 112
    Nauck M, Frid A, Hermansen K et al. Efficacy and safety comparison of liraglutide, glimepiride, and placebo, all in combination with metformin, in type 2 diabetes: the LEAD (liraglutide effect and action in diabetes)-2 study. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 8490.
  • 113
    Vilsboll T, Zdravkovic M, Le Thi T et al. Liraglutide, a long-acting human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, given as monotherapy significantly improves glycemic control and lowers body weight without risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 16081610.
  • 114
    Buse JB, Rosenstock J, Sesti G et al. Liraglutide once a day versus exenatide twice a day for type 2 diabetes: a 26-week randomised, parallel-group, multinational, open-label trial (LEAD-6). Lancet 2009; 374: 3947.
  • 115
    Jendle J, Nauck M, Matthews D et al. Liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analog, reduces fat percentage, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and hepatic steatosis compared with glimepiride when added to metformin in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2008; 57: A32A33.
  • 116
    Drucker DJ, Nauck MA. The incretin system: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes. Lancet 2006; 368: 16961705.
  • 117
    Charbonnel B, Karasik A, Liu J, Wu M, Meininger G. Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin added to ongoing metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin alone. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 26382643.
  • 118
    Aschner P, Kipnes MS, Lunceford JK, Sanchez M, Mickel C, Williams-Herman DE. Effect of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin as monotherapy on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 26322637.
  • 119
    Goldstein BJ, Feinglos MN, Lunceford JK, Johnson J, Williams-Herman DE. Effect of initial combination therapy with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, and metformin on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 19791987.
  • 120
    Pi-Sunyer FX, Schweizer A, Mills D, Dejager S. Efficacy and tolerability of vildagliptin monotherapy in drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007; 76: 132138.
  • 121
    Schweizer A, Couturier A, Foley JE, Dejager S. Comparison between vildagliptin and metformin to sustain reductions in HbA(1c) over 1 year in drug-naive patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2007; 24: 955961.
  • 122
    DeFronzo RA, Hissa MN, Garber AJ et al. The efficacy and safety of saxagliptin when added to metformin therapy in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes with metformin alone. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 16491655.
  • 123
    Rosenstock J, Foley JE, Rendell M et al. Effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor vildagliptin on incretin hormones, islet function, and postprandial glycemia in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 3035.
  • 124
    Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 13431350.
  • 125
    Pi-Sunyer X, Blackburn G, Brancati FL et al. Reduction in weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: one-year results of the look AHEAD trial. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 13741383.
  • 126
    Franz MJ, VanWormer JJ, Crain AL et al. Weight-loss outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight-loss clinical trials with a minimum 1-year follow-up. J Am Diet Assoc 2007; 107: 17551767.
  • 127
    Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, Gregg E, Schmid CH, Lau J. Long-term non-pharmacological weight loss interventions for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005: 165.
  • 128
    Maggio CA, Pi-Sunyer FX. Obesity and type 2 diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2003; 32: 805822, viii.
  • 129
    Padwal RS, Majumdar SR. Drug treatments for obesity: orlistat, sibutramine, and rimonabant. Lancet 2007; 369: 7177.
  • 130
    Torgerson JS, Hauptman J, Boldrin MN, Sjostrom L. XENical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study: a randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 155161.
  • 131
    Padwal R, Li SK, Lau DC. Long-term pharmacotherapy for overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003; 27: 14371446.
  • 132
    Vettor R, Serra R, Fabris R, Pagano C, Federspil G. Effect of sibutramine on weight management and metabolic control in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of clinical studies. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 942949.
  • 133
    Sharma AM. Sibutramine in overweight/obese hypertensive patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25 (Suppl 4): S20S23.
  • 134
    Henness S, Robinson DM, Lyseng-Williamson KA. Rimonabant. Drugs 2006; 66: 21092119.
  • 135
    Pi-Sunyer FX, Aronne LJ, Heshmati HM, Devin J, Rosenstock J. Effect of rimonabant, a cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, on weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight or obese patients: RIO-North America: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2006; 295: 761775.
  • 136
    Scheen AJ, Finer N, Hollander P, Jensen MD, Van Gaal LF. Efficacy and tolerability of rimonabant in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled study. Lancet 2006; 368: 16601672.
  • 137
    Sjostrom L, Narbro K, Sjostrom CD et al. Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 741752.
  • 138
    Smith FJ, Holman CD, Moorin RE, Fletcher DR. Incidence of bariatric surgery and postoperative outcomes: a population-based analysis in Western Australia. Med J Aust 2008; 189: 198202.
  • 139
    Adams TD, Gress RE, Smith SC et al. Long-term mortality after gastric bypass surgery. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 753761.
  • 140
    Dixon JB, O’Brien PE, Playfair J et al. Adjustable gastric banding and conventional therapy for type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008; 299: 316323.
  • 141
    Goodpaster BH, Kelley DE, Wing RR, Meier A, Thaete FL. Effects of weight loss on regional fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in obesity. Diabetes 1999; 48: 839847.
  • 142
    Utzschneider KM, Carr DB, Barsness SM, Kahn SE, Schwartz RS. Diet-induced weight loss is associated with an improvement in beta-cell function in older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 27042710.
  • 143
    Hamman RF, Wing RR, Edelstein SL et al. Effect of weight loss with lifestyle intervention on risk of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 21022107.
  • 144
    Lean ME, Powrie JK, Anderson AS, Garthwaite PH. Obesity, weight loss and prognosis in type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 1990; 7: 228233.