• 1
    International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Atlas Background: Prevalence and Projections. 2006. Accessed 9 October 2009.
  • 2
    International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Atlas: Mortality. 2009. Accessed 9 October 2009.
  • 3
    Laakso M. Hyperglycemia and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1999; 48: 937942.
  • 4
    Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 25602572.
  • 5
    Gaede P, Lund-Andersen H, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Effect of a multifactorial intervention on mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 580591.
  • 6
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Type 2 diabetes: national clinical guideline for management in primary and secondary care (update). 2008; Accessed 9 October 2009.
  • 7
    Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB et al. Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: A consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: A consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 193203.
  • 8
    Rodbard HW, Blonde L, Braithwaite SS et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the management of diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract 2007; 13(Suppl. 1): 168.
  • 9
    Short Clinical Guidelines Technical Team. Type 2 diabetes: newer agents. NICE short clinical guideline 87. 2009; Accessed 9 October 2009.
  • 10
    Consensus statement on the worldwide standardization of the hemoglobin A1C measurement: the American Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, and the International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Care 2007; 30 : 23992400.
  • 11
    International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. Standardization of HbA1c. 2009. Accessed 11 November 2009.
  • 12
    Turner RC, Cull CA, Frighi V, Holman RR. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Glycemic control with diet, sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: progressive requirement for multiple therapies (UKPDS 49). JAMA 1999; 281: 20052012.
  • 13
    Millett C, Netuveli G, Saxena S, Majeed A. Impact of pay for performance on ethnic disparities in intermediate outcomes for diabetes: a longitudinal study. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 404409.
  • 14
    Ford ES, Li C, Little RR, Mokdad AH. Trends in A1C concentrations among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes from 1999 to 2004. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 102104.
  • 15
    Millett C, Gray J, Saxena S et al. Ethnic disparities in diabetes management and pay-for-performance in the UK: the Wandsworth Prospective Diabetes Study. PLoS Med 2007; 4: 10871093.
  • 16
    Millett C, Car J, Eldred D et al. Diabetes prevalence, process of care and outcomes in relation to practice size, caseload and deprivation: national cross-sectional study in primary care. J R Soc Med 2007; 100: 275283.
  • 17
    Gudbjornsdottir S, Eeg-Olofsson K, Cederholm J et al. Risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease: findings from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR). Diabet Med 2009; 26: 5360.
  • 18
    National Diabetes Support Team. National Diabetes Audit (NDA) Summary: 2003/4 to 2005/6. Factsheet No. 26. 2008. Accessed 9 October 2009.
  • 19
    Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T et al. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 129139.
  • 20
    Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 25452559.
  • 21
    Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Matthews DR, Neil HA. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 15771589.
  • 22
    Skyler JS, Bergenstal R, Bonow RO et al. Intensive glycemic control and the prevention of cardiovascular events: implications of the ACCORD, ADVANCE, and VA diabetes trials: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and a scientific statement of the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2009; 119 : 351357.
  • 23
    Ray KK, Seshasai SR, Wijesuriya S et al. Effect of intensive control of glucose on cardiovascular outcomes and death in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2009; 373: 17651772.
  • 24
    Lebovitz HE. Insulin secretagogues: old and new. Diabetes Rev 1999; 7: 139153.
  • 25
    Festa A, Williams K, D’Agostino RJ, Wagenknecht LE, Haffner SM. The natural course of β-cell function in nondiabetic and diabetic individuals: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes 2006; 55: 11141120.
  • 26
    Ferrannini E, Gastaldelli A, Miyazaki Y et al. β-Cell function in subjects spanning the range from normal glucose tolerance to overt diabetes: a new analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 493500.
  • 27
    LeRoith D. Beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: role of metabolic and genetic abnormalities. Am J Med 2002; 113(Suppl. 6A): 3S11S.
  • 28
    Levy J, Atkinson AB, Bell PM, McCance DR, Hadden DR. Beta-cell deterioration determines the onset and rate of progression of secondary dietary failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the 10-year follow-up of the Belfast Diet Study. Diabet Med 1998; 15: 290296.
  • 29
    Cramer JA. A systematic review of adherence with medications for diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 12181224.
  • 30
    Donnelly LA, Doney AS, Morris AD, Palmer CN, Donnan PT. Long-term adherence to statin treatment in diabetes. Diabet Med 2008; 25: 850855.
  • 31
    Donnelly LA, Morris AD, Evans JM. Adherence to insulin and its association with glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. QJM 2007; 100: 345350.
  • 32
    Evans JM, Donnan PT, Morris AD. Adherence to oral hypoglycaemic agents prior to insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2002; 19: 685688.
  • 33
    Donnan PT, MacDonald TM, Morris AD. Adherence to prescribed oral hypoglycaemic medication in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study. Diabet Med 2002; 19: 279284.
  • 34
    Odegard PS, Capoccia K. Medication taking and diabetes: a systematic review of the literature. Diabetes Educ 2007; 33: 10141029.
  • 35
    Khunti K, Skinner TC, Heller S et al. Biomedical, lifestyle and psychosocial characteristics of people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes: baseline data from the DESMOND randomized controlled trial. Diabet Med 2008; 25: 14541461.
  • 36
    Skinner TC, Carey ME, Cradock S et al. Diabetes Education and Self-Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed (DESMOND): process modelling of pilot study. Patient Educ Couns 2006; 64: 369377.
  • 37
    Hunt LM, Valenzuela MA, Pugh JA. NIDDM patients' fears and hopes about insulin therapy. The basis of patient reluctance. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 292298.
  • 38
    Korytkowski M. When oral agents fail: Practical barriers to starting insulin. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26(Suppl. 3): S18S24.
  • 39
    Polonsky WH, Fisher L, Guzman S, Villa-Caballero L, Edelman SV. Psychological insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes: the scope of the problem. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 25432545.
  • 40
    Das-Munshi J, Stewart R, Ismail K et al. Diabetes, common mental disorders, and disability: findings from the UK National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Psychosom Med 2007; 69: 543550.
  • 41
    Egede LE. Effect of depression on self-management behaviors and health outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes. Curr Diabetes Rev 2005; 1: 235243.
  • 42
    Peyrot M, Rubin RR, Lauritzen T et al. Psychosocial problems and barriers to improved diabetes management: results of the Cross-National Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) Study. Diabet Med 2005; 22: 13791385.
  • 43
    Ali S, Stone MA, Peters JL, Davies MJ, Khunti K. The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med 2006; 23: 11651173.
  • 44
    Peyrot M, Rubin RR, Lauritzen T et al. Resistance to insulin therapy among patients and providers: results of the cross-national Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) study. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 26732679.
  • 45
    Greaves CJ, Brown P, Terry RT et al. Converting to insulin in primary care: an exploration of the needs of practice nurses. J Adv Nurs 2003; 42: 487496.
  • 46
    Amiel SA, Dixon T, Mann R, Jameson K. Hypoglycaemia in type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2008; 25: 245254.
  • 47
    Cryer PE, Davis SN, Shamoon H. Hypoglycemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 19021912.
  • 48
    UKProspective DiabetesStudy (UKPDS) Group. United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study 24: a 6-year, randomized, controlled trial comparing sulfonylurea, insulin, and metformin therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes that could not be controlled with diet therapy. Ann Intern Med 1998; 128: 165175.
  • 49
    Kahn SE, Haffner SM, Heise MA et al. Glycemic durability of rosiglitazone, metformin, or glyburide monotherapy. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 24272443.
  • 50
    Alvarez GF, Tofe PS, Krishnarajah G et al. Hypoglycaemic symptoms, treatment satisfaction, adherence and their associations with glycaemic goal in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: findings from the Real-Life Effectiveness and Care Patterns of Diabetes Management (RECAP-DM) Study. Diabetes Obes Metab 2008; 10(Suppl. 1): 2532.
  • 51
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998; 352: 837853.
  • 52
    Davies M. The reality of glycaemic control in insulin treated diabetes: defining the clinical challenges. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28(Suppl. 2): S14S22.
  • 53
    Hermansen K, Mortensen LS. Bodyweight changes associated with antihyperglycaemic agents in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drug Saf 2007; 30: 11271142.
  • 54
    Peyrot M, Skovlund SE, Landgraf R. Epidemiology and correlates of weight worry in the multinational Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs study. Curr Med Res Opin 2009; 25: 19851993.
  • 55
    Belcher G, Lambert C, Edwards G, Urquhart R, Matthews DR. Safety and tolerability of pioglitazone, metformin, and gliclazide in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2005; 70: 5362.
  • 56
    Schernthaner G, Grimaldi A, Di Mario U et al. GUIDE study: double-blind comparison of once-daily gliclazide MR and glimepiride in type 2 diabetic patients. Eur J Clin Invest 2004; 34: 535542.
  • 57
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. United Kingdom prospective diabetes study (UKPDS) 13: relative efficacy of randomly allocated diet, sulphonylurea, insulin or metformin in patients with newly diagnosed non-insulin dependent diabetes followed for three years. BMJ 1995; 310: 8388.
  • 58
    Van De Laar FA, Lucassen PL, Akkermans RP et al. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for patients with type 2 diabetes: results from a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 154163.
  • 59
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 1998; 352: 854865.
  • 60
    Stumvoll M, Nurjhan N, Perriello G, Dailey G, Gerich JE. Metabolic effects of metformin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 550554.
  • 61
    Dormandy JA, Charbonnel B, Eckland DJ et al. Secondary prevention of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the PROactive Study (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366: 12791289.
  • 62
    Khunti K, Hiles SL, Davies MJ. Reducing the impact of vascular disease: the proposed Vascular Risk Programme for risk assessment and management. Prim Care Cardiovasc J 2008; 1: 7276.
  • 63
    Gillies CL, Abrams KR, Lambert PC et al. Pharmacological and lifestyle interventions to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2007; 334: 299307.
  • 64
    Davies MJ, Heller S, Skinner TC et al. Effectiveness of the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008; 336: 491495.
  • 65
    Deakin TA, Cade JE, Williams R, Greenwood DC. Structured patient education: the diabetes X-PERT Programme makes a difference. Diabet Med 2006; 23: 944954.
  • 66
    Deakin T, McShane CE, Cade JE, Williams RD. Group based training for self-management strategies in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 2: CD003417.
  • 67
    Snoek FJ, Skovlund SE, Pouwer F. Development and validation of the insulin treatment appraisal scale (ITAS) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2007; 5: 6975.
  • 68
    Rubin RR, Peyrot M. Factors affecting use of insulin pens by patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 430432.
  • 69
    Griffin SJ, Kinmonth AL. Systems for routine surveillance in people with diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1998; 1: CD000541.
  • 70
    Farmer A, Wade A, Goyder E et al. Impact of self monitoring of blood glucose in the management of patients with non-insulin treated diabetes: open parallel group randomised trial. BMJ 2007; 335: 132139.
  • 71
    Khunti K, Gadsby R, Millett C, Majeed A, Davies M. Quality of diabetes care in the UK: comparison of published quality-of-care reports with results of the Quality and Outcomes Framework for Diabetes. Diabet Med 2007; 24: 14361441.
  • 72
    Baggio LL, Drucker DJ. Biology of incretins: GLP-1 and GIP. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: 21312157.
  • 73
    Drucker DJ, Nauck MA. The incretin system: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes. Lancet 2006; 368: 16961705.
  • 74
    Drucker DJ. Enhancing incretin action for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 29292940.
  • 75
    Kendall DM, Cuddihy RM, Bergenstal RM. Clinical application of incretin-based therapy: therapeutic potential, patient selection and clinical use. Am J Med 2009; 122: S37S50.
  • 76
    Mudaliar S, Henry RR. Incretin therapies: effects beyond glycemic control. Am J Med 2009; 122: S25S36.
  • 77
    Gilbert MP, Pratley RE. Efficacy and safety of incretin-based therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 2009; 122: S11S24.
  • 78
    Novartis Pharma GmbH. Vildagliptin Summary of Product Characteristics. 2009. Accessed 7 October 2009.
  • 79
    DeFronzo RA, Ratner RE, Han J et al. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control and weight over 30 weeks in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 10921100.
  • 80
    Nauck M, Frid A, Hermansen K et al. Efficacy and safety comparison of liraglutide, glimepiride, and placebo, all in combination with metformin, in type 2 diabetes: the LEAD (liraglutide effect and action in diabetes)-2 study. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 8490.
  • 81
    Zinman B, Gerich J, Buse JB et al. Efficacy and safety of the human GLP-1 analog liraglutide in combination with metformin and TZD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (LEAD-4 Met+TZD). Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 12241230.
  • 82
    Colagiuri S, Frid A, Zdravkovic M, Le-Thi T, Vaag A. The once-daily human GLP-1 analog liraglutide reduces systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. American Diabetes Association 68th Scientific Sessions, San Francisco, CA, USA, 610 June 2008.
  • 83
    Lindsay JR, Duffy NA, McKillop AM et al. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity by oral metformin in type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2005; 22: 654657.
  • 84
    Mannucci E, Ognibene A, Cremasco F et al. Effect of metformin on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and leptin levels in obese nondiabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 489494.
  • 85
    Buse JB, Henry RR, Han J et al. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control over 30 weeks in sulfonylurea-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 26282635.
  • 86
    Marre M, Shaw J, Brandle M et al. Liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analogue, added to a sulphonylurea over 26 weeks produces greater improvements in glycaemic and weight control compared with adding rosiglitazone or placebo in subjects with type 2 diabetes (LEAD-1 SU). Diabet Med 2009; 26: 268278.
  • 87
    Zinman B, Hoogwerf BJ, Durán GS et al. The effect of adding exenatide to a thiazolidinedione in suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146: 477485.
  • 88
    Amori RE, Lau J, Pittas AG. Efficacy and safety of incretin therapy in type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2007; 298: 194206.
  • 89
    Merck-Sharpe-Dohme. Sitagliptin Summary of Product Characteristics. 2009. Accessed 9 October 2009.
  • 90
    Yki-Jarvinen H. Thiazolidinediones. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 11061118.
  • 91
    Campbell IW. The clinical significance of PPAR gamma agonism. Curr Mol Med 2005; 5: 349363.
  • 92
    Kahn SE, Zinman B, Lachin JM et al. Rosiglitazone-associated fractures in type 2 diabetes: an Analysis from A Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial (ADOPT). Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 845851.
  • 93
    Dormandy J, Bhattacharya M, Van Troostenburg de Bruyn AR. Safety and tolerability of pioglitazone in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes: an overview of data from PROactive. Drug Saf 2009; 32: 187202.
  • 94
    Lincoff AM, Wolski K, Nicholls SJ, Nissen SE. Pioglitazone and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. JAMA 2007; 298: 11801188.
  • 95
    Goldberg RB, Kendall DM, Deeg MA et al. A comparison of lipid and glycemic effects of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 15471554.
  • 96
    Nissen SE, Wolski K. Effect of rosiglitazone on the risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 24572471.
  • 97
    Singh S, Loke YK, Furberg CD. Long-term risk of cardiovascular events with rosiglitazone: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2007; 298: 11891195.
  • 98
    Diamond GA, Bax L, Kaul S. Uncertain effects of rosiglitazone on the risk for myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. Ann Intern Med 2007; 147: 578581.
  • 99
    Home PD, Pocock SJ, Beck-Nielsen H et al. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes in oral agent combination therapy for type 2 diabetes (RECORD): a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial. Lancet 2009; 373: 21252135.
  • 100
    Horvath K, Jeitler K, Berghold A et al. Long-acting insulin analogues versus NPH insulin (human isophane insulin) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 2: CD005613.
  • 101
    Hemkens LG, Grouven U, Bender R et al. Risk of malignancies in patients with diabetes treated with human insulin or insulin analogues: a cohort study. Diabetologia 2009; 52: 17321744.
  • 102
    Smith U, Gale EA. Does diabetes therapy influence the risk of cancer? Diabetologia 2009; 52: 16991708.
  • 103
    Jonasson JM, Ljung R, Talback M et al. Insulin glargine use and short-term incidence of malignancies-a population-based follow-up study in Sweden. Diabetologia 2009; 52: 17451754.
  • 104
    Colhoun HM. Use of insulin glargine and cancer incidence in Scotland: a study from the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group. Diabetologia 2009; 52: 17551765.
  • 105
    Currie CJ, Poole CD, Gale EA. The influence of glucose-lowering therapies on cancer risk in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2009; 52: 17661777.