• 1
    Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB et al. Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 193203.
  • 2
    Akalin S, Berntorp K, Ceriello A et al. Intensive glucose therapy and clinical implications of recent data: a consensus statement from the Global Task Force on Glycaemic Control. Int J Clin Pract 2009; 63: 14211425.
  • 3
    Albarrak AI, Luzio SD, Chassin LJ, Playle RA, Owens DR, Hovorka R. Associations of glucose control with insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness in newly presenting type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87: 198203.
  • 4
    Heinemann L, Chantelau EA, Starke AA. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of subcutaneously administered U40 and U100 formulations of regular human insulin. Diabete Metab 1992; 18: 2124.
  • 5
    Becker RH. Insulin glulisine complementing basal insulins: a review of structure and activity. Diabetes Technol Ther 2007; 9: 109121.
  • 6
    Becker RH, Frick AD. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of insulin glulisine. Clin Pharmacokinet 2008; 47: 720.
  • 7
    Becker RH, Frick AD, Burger F, Potgieter JH, Scholtz H. Insulin glulisine, a new rapid-acting insulin analogue, displays a rapid time-action profile in obese non-diabetic subjects. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2005; 113: 435443.
  • 8
    Heise T, Nosek L, Spitzer H et al. Insulin glulisine: a faster onset of action compared with insulin lispro. Diabetes Obes Metab 2007; 9: 746753.
  • 9
    Luzio S, Peter R, Dunseath GJ, Mustafa L, Owens DR. A comparison of preprandial insulin glulisine versus insulin lispro in people with type 2 diabetes over a 12-h period. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2008; 79: 269275.
  • 10
    Becker RH, Frick AD, Burger F, Scholtz H, Potgieter JH. A comparison of the steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a novel rapid-acting insulin analog, insulin glulisine, and regular human insulin in healthy volunteers using the euglycemic clamp technique. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2005; 113: 292297.
  • 11
    Becker RH, Frick AD, Nosek L, Heinemann L, Rave K. Dose-response relationship of insulin glulisine in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 25062507.
  • 12
    Danne T, Becker RH, Heise T, Bittner C, Frick AD, Rave K. Pharmacokinetics, prandial glucose control, and safety of insulin glulisine in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 21002105.
  • 13
    Arnolds S, Rave K, Hovelmann U, Fischer A, Sert-Langeron C, Heise T. Insulin glulisine has a faster onset of action compared with insulin aspart in healthy volunteers. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2010; 118: 662664.
  • 14
    Porcellati F, Rossetti P, Busciantella NR et al. Comparison of pharmacokinetics and dynamics of the long-acting insulin analogs glargine and detemir at steady state in type 1 diabetes: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 24472452.
  • 15
    Chow SC, Liu JP. Design and Analysis of Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Studies, 2nd edn. Revised and Expanded. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2000.
  • 16
    Sluzky V, Tamada JA, Klibanov AM, Langer R. Kinetics of insulin aggregation in aqueous solutions upon agitation in the presence of hydrophobic surfaces. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88: 93779381.
  • 17
    Bakaysa DL, Radziuk J, Havel HA et al. Physicochemical basis for the rapid time-action of LysB28ProB29-insulin: dissociation of a protein–ligand complex. Protein Sci 1996; 5: 25212531.
  • 18
    Bhatnagar S, Srivastava D, Jayadev MS, Dubey AK. Molecular variants and derivatives of insulin for improved glycemic control in diabetes. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2006; 91: 199228.
  • 19
    Vora JP, Burch A, Peters JR, Owens DR. Absorption of radiolabelled soluble insulin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes: influence of subcutaneous blood flow and anthropometry. Diabet Med 1993; 10: 736743.
  • 20
    Vora JP, Burch A, Peters JR, Owens DR. Relationship between absorption of radiolabeled soluble insulin, subcutaneous blood flow, and anthropometry. Diabetes Care 1992; 15: 14841493.
  • 21
    Clauson PG, Linde B. Absorption of rapid-acting insulin in obese and nonobese NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1995; 18: 986991.
  • 22
    ter Braak EW, Woodworth JR, Bianchi R et al. Injection site effects on the pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics of insulin lispro and regular insulin. Diabetes Care 1996; 19: 14371440.
  • 23
    Bergenstal RM, Johnson M, Powers MA et al. Adjust to target in type 2 diabetes: comparison of a simple algorithm with carbohydrate counting for adjustment of mealtime insulin glulisine. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 13051310.