Initial combination therapy with saxagliptin and metformin provides sustained glycaemic control and is well tolerated for up to 76 weeks
Article first published online: 20 APR 2011
© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Volume 13, Issue 6, pages 567–576, June 2011
How to Cite
Pfützner, A., Paz-Pacheco, E., Allen, E., Frederich, R., Chen, R. and for the CV181039 Investigators (2011), Initial combination therapy with saxagliptin and metformin provides sustained glycaemic control and is well tolerated for up to 76 weeks. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 13: 567–576. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01385.x
- Issue published online: 20 APR 2011
- Article first published online: 20 APR 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 22 FEB 2011 02:54PM EST
- Date submitted 3 December 2010; date of first decision 7 December 2010; date of final acceptance 16 February 2011
- combination therapy;
- DPP-4 inhibitor;
- type 2 diabetes mellitus
Aim: To assess the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin + metformin initial combination therapy compared with saxagliptin or metformin alone over 76 weeks (24-week short-term + 52-week long-term extension) in treatment-naÏve type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with inadequate glycaemic control.
Methods: In this phase 3, parallel-group, double-blind, active-controlled study, 1306 patients 18–77 years of age (HbA1c 8.0–12.0%) were randomized to saxagliptin 5 mg + 500 mg metformin, saxagliptin 10 mg + 500 mg metformin, saxagliptin 10 mg + placebo or 500 mg metformin + placebo. Blinded metformin was titrated during weeks 1–5 of the short-term treatment period in 500 mg/day increments to 2000 mg/day maximum in the metformin-based treatment groups. No titration of metformin was permitted during the long-term treatment period. A total of 888 patients completed the study (76 weeks), 613 without being rescued. Changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, 120-min postprandial glucose (PPG) and PPG-area under the curve (AUC) from baseline to week 76 were analysed using a repeated-measures model.
Results: At 76 weeks, adjusted mean changes from baseline HbA1c (95% CI) for saxagliptin 5 mg + metformin, saxagliptin 10 mg + metformin, saxagliptin 10 mg and metformin were −2.31 (−2.44, −2.18), −2.33 (−2.46, −2.20), −1.55 (−1.70, −1.40) and −1.79% (−1.93, −1.65), respectively (post hoc and nominal p < 0.0001 vs. metformin and saxagliptin monotherapies for saxagliptin 5 mg + metformin and saxagliptin 10 mg + metformin). The proportions of patients requiring rescue or discontinuation for insufficient glycaemic control were lower for saxagliptin + metformin than for either monotherapy. Little or no attenuation in PPG-AUC or 120-min PPG was observed between weeks 24 and 76 for saxagliptin + metformin, indicating persistent efficacy. Adverse event rates were similar across groups; hypoglycaemic events occurred at a low frequency.
Conclusion: Saxagliptin + metformin initial combination therapy was well tolerated and produced sustained glycaemic control for up to 76 weeks, with greater improvements in glycaemic parameters compared with either drug alone.