Analysis of tear uptake by the Schirmer tear test strip in the canine eye


  • David L. Williams

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OES, England, UK
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Objective  To analyze the uptake of tears in a Schirmer tear test (STT) in vitro and in vitro.

Materials and methods  Uptake of fluid by Schirmer tear test strips was studied in vitro by examining fluid uptake over time from an unlimited fluid supply as well as with specific fluid volumes applied to the test strip. Uptake of fluid by Schirmer tear test strips was evaluated in a population of 100 ophthalmologically normal dogs together with a group of 40 dogs with tear film abnormalities such as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or epiphora. Each animal was given a full ophthalmic examination followed by a standard Schirmer tear test extended over between 3 and 5 min with the STT reading recorded every 5 s and plotted over time. To determine the effect of ocular irritation by the test strip, uptake of tears by test strips was determined before and after topical anesthesia in 20 dogs.

Results In vitro examination of fluid uptake by the STT strips showed an initial rapid uptake followed by a gradual reduction in rate of uptake. Temporal evaluation of STT in vivo showed a similar rapid initial uptake of tear fluid, followed in the majority of cases by a sudden change to a steady state uptake of fluid. The initial gradient was 29.3 ± 16.9 mm/min followed by a steady state uptake of 5.2 ± 2.3 mm/min in normal dogs and 1.9 ± 1.3 mm/min in dogs with KCS. This corresponds to a steady state tear turnover of 7.8 ± 3.4 µL/min in normal dogs and 2.8 ± 1.9 µL/min in animals with KCS. Dogs with nasolacrimal blockage and resultant epiphora showed a high initial gradient but final gradients were not statistically different from those of normal dogs.

Discussion and conclusions  Temporal evaluation of tear uptake by the STT shows substantial differences in rate of tear uptake at different time-points during the period of the test. Results of this study suggest that the initial rapid rise in STT value represents uptake from the tear lake followed by a slower tear uptake of tears from steady state tear production. Temporal examination of the Schirmer tear test allows a more precise evaluation of tear production than the standard STT measuring tear uptake in 1 min, together with estimation of the contribution to the test strip tear uptake of tears from the residual tear lake volume and those from continual tear production.