• 1
    Elner SG, Elner VM. The integrin superfamily and the eye. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1996; 37: 696701.
  • 2
    Hynes RO. Integrins: versatility, modulation, and signaling in cell adhesion. Cell 1992; 69: 1125.
  • 3
    Vigneault F, Zaniolo K, Gaudreault M et al. Control of integrin genes expression in the eye. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 2007; 26: 99161.
  • 4
    Edelman JM, DiMilla PA, Albelda SM. The integrin cell adhesion molecules. In: Principles of Cell Adhesion. (eds RichardsonPD, SteinerM) CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995; 163186.
  • 5
    Stepp MA. Corneal integrins and their functions. Experimental Eye Research 2006; 83: 315.
  • 6
    Tiger CF, Fougerousse F, Grundstrom G et al. α11β1 Integrin is a receptor for interstitial collagens involved in cell migration and collagen reorganization on mesenchymal nonmuscle cells. Developmental Biology 2001; 237: 116129.
  • 7
    Stepp MA, Zhu L. Upregulation of α9 integrin and tenascin during epithelial regeneration after debridement in the cornea. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 1997; 45: 189201.
  • 8
    Hutcheon AE, Guo XQ, Stepp MA et al. Effect of wound type on Smad 2 and 4 translocation. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 2005; 46: 23622368.
  • 9
    Luo BH, Springer TA, Takagi J. A specific interface between integrin transmembrane helices and affinity for ligand. PLoS Biology 2004; 2: 776786.
  • 10
    Solowska J, Edelman JM, Albelda SM et al. Cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of integrin β1 and β3 subunits are functionally interchangeable. Journal of Cell Biology 1991; 114: 10791088.
  • 11
    Schneider D, Engelman DM. Involvement of transmembrane domain interactions in signal transduction by α/β integrins. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2004; 279: 98409846.
  • 12
    Hemler ME, Crouse C, Sonnenberg A. Association of the VLA α6 subunit with a novel protein. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1989; 264: 65296535.
  • 13
    Suzuki S, Naitoh Y. Amino acid sequence of a novel integrin β4 subunit and primary expression of the mRNA in epithelial cells. EMBO Journal 1990; 9: 757763.
  • 14
    Cox D, Aoki T, Seki J et al. The pharmacology of the integrins. Medical Research Reviews 1994; 14: 195228.
  • 15
    Vicente-Manzanares M, Choi CK, Horwitz AR et al. Integrins in cell migration- the actin connection. Journal of Cell Science 2009; 122: 199206.
  • 16
    Ziegler WH, Gingras AR, Critchley DR et al. Integrin connections to the cytoskeleton through talin and vinculin. Biochemical Society Transactions 2008; 36: 235239.
  • 17
    Buck CA, Shea E, Duggan K et al. Integrin (the CSAT antigen): functionality requires oligomeric integrity. Journal of Cell Biology 1986; 103: 24212428.
  • 18
    Huveneers S, Danen EH. Adhesion signaling – crosstalk between integrins, Src and Rho. Journal of Cell Science 2009; 122: 10591069.
  • 19
    Dipersio CM, Hodivala-Dillke KM, Jaenisch R et al. alpha3beta1 Integrin is required for normal development of the epidermal basement membrane. Journal of Cell Biology 1997; 137: 729742.
  • 20
    Raghavan S, Bauer C, Mundschau G et al. Conditional ablation of beta1 integrin in skin. Severe defects in epidermal proliferation, basement membrane formation, and hair follicle invagination. Journal of Cell Biology 2000; 150: 11491160.
  • 21
    Stepp MA, Spurr-Michaud S, Gipson IK. Integrins in the wounded and unwounded stratified squamous epithelium of the cornea. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1993; 34: 18291844.
  • 22
    Sheppard D. Epithelial integrins. Bioessays 1996; 18: 655660.
  • 23
    Symington BE, Takada Y, Carter WG. Interaction of integrins alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1: potential role in keratinocyte intercellular adhesion. Journal of Cell Biology 1993; 120: 523535.
  • 24
    Sriramarao P, Steffner P, Gehisen KR. Biochemical evidence for a homophilic interaction of the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1993; 268: 2203622041.
  • 25
    Tucker GC. αv integrin inhibitors and cancer therapy. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs 2003; 4: 722731.
  • 26
    Dowling J, Yu QC, Fuchs E. β4 integrin is required for hemidesmosome formation, cell adhesion and cell survival. Journal of Cell Biology 1996; 134: 559572.
  • 27
    Georges-Labouesse E, Messaddeq N, Yehia G et al. Absence of integrin alpha 6 leads to epidermolysis bullosa and neonatal death in mice. Nature Genetics 1996; 13: 370373.
  • 28
    Van Der Neut R, Krimpenfort P, Calafat J et al. Epithelial detachment due to absence of hemidesmosomes in integrin β4 null mice. Nature Genetics 1996; 13: 366369.
  • 29
    Mariotti A, Kedeshian PA, Dans M et al. EGF-R signaling through Fyn kinase disrupts the function of α6β4 at hemidesmosomes: role in epithelial cell migration and carcinoma invasion. Journal of Cell Biology 2001; 155: 447457.
  • 30
    Giancotti FG, Mainiero F. Integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling in tumorigenesis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1994; 1198: 4764.
  • 31
    Schenk P. The fate of hemidesmosomes in laryngeal carcinoma. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 1979; 222: 187198.
  • 32
    Mainiero F, Pepe A, Wary K et al. Signal transduction of the α6β4 integrin: distinct β4 subunit sites mediate recruitment of Shc/Grb2 and association with the cytoskeleton of hemidesmosomes. EMBO Journal 1995; 14: 44704481.
  • 33
    Hynes RO. Integrins: bidirectional, allosteric signaling machines. Cell 2002; 110: 673687.
  • 34
    Edelhauser HF, Ubels JL. The cornea and sclera. In: Adler’s Physiology of the Eye, 10th edn. (eds KaufmanPL, AlmA) Mosby, St. Louis, 2003; 47114.
  • 35
    Friend J, Hassell JR. Biochemistry of the cornea. In: The Cornea, 2nd edn. (eds SmolinG, ThoftRA) Little Brown, Boston, 1994; 2934.
  • 36
    Gipson IK, Spurr-Michaud S, Tisdale A et al. Reassembly of the anchoring structures of the corneal epithelium during wound repair in the rabbit. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1989; 30: 425434.
  • 37
    Gipson IK, Grill SM, Spurr SJ et al. Hemidesmosome formation in vitro. Journal of Cell Biology 1983; 97: 849857.
  • 38
    Plopper G. The extracellular matrix and cell adhesion. In: Cells. (eds LewinB, CassimerisL, LingappaVR, PlopperG) Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, 2007; 645697.
  • 39
    Stepp MA, Spurr-Michaud S, Tisdale A et al. α6β4 integrin heterodimer is a component of hemidesmosomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1990; 87: 89708974.
  • 40
    Watt FM. Role of integrins in regulating epidermal adhesion, growth and differentiation. EMBO Journal 2002; 21: 39193926.
  • 41
    Watanabe K, Nakagawa S, Nishida T. Stimulatory effects of fibronectin and EGF on migration of corneal epithelial cells. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1987; 28: 205211.
  • 42
    Nishida T, Nakagawa S, Awata T et al. Fibronectin promotes epithelial migration of cultured rabbit cornea in situ. Journal of Cell Biology 1983; 97: 16531657.
  • 43
    Murakami J, Nishida T, Otori T. Coordinated appearance of beta 1 integrins and fibronectin during corneal wound healing. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 1992; 120: 8693.
  • 44
    Trinkaus-Randall V, Newton AW, Franzblau C. The synthesis and role of integrin in corneal epithelial cells in culture. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1990; 31: 440447.
  • 45
    Wu C, Fields AJ, Kapteijn BAE et al. The role of α4β1 integrin in cell motility and fibronectin matrix assembly. Journal of Cell Science 1995; 108: 821829.
  • 46
    Duband JL, Dufour S, Yamada SS et al. Neural crest cell locomotion by antibodies to β1 integrins. A tool for studying the roles of substratum molecular avidity and density in migration. Journal of Cell Science 1991; 98: 517532.
  • 47
    Chen Q, Kinch MS, Lin TH et al. Integrin-mediated cell adhesion activates mitogen-activated protein kinases. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1994; 269: 2660226605.
  • 48
    Zhang X, Jiang G, Cai Y et al. Talin depletion reveals independence of initial cell spreading from integrin activation and traction. Nature Cell Biology 2008; 10: 10621068.
  • 49
    Grose R, Hutter C, Bloch W et al. A crucial role of beta 1 integrins for keratinocyte migration in vitro and during cutaneous wound repair. Development 2002; 129: 23032315.
  • 50
    Solowska J, Guan JL, Marcantonio EE et al. Expression of normal and mutant avian integrin subunits in rodent cells. Journal of Cell Biology 1989; 109: 853861.
  • 51
    Jiang P, Enomoto A, Takahashi M. Cell biology of the movement of breast cancer cells: Intracellular signaling and the actin cytoskeleton. Cancer Letters 2009; doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2009.02.034.
  • 52
    Larjava H, Peltonen J, Akiyama SK et al. Novel function for beta 1 integrins in keratinocyte cell–cell interactions. Journal of Cell Biology 1990; 110: 803815.
  • 53
    Stepp MA, Gibson HE, Gala PH et al. Defects in keratinocyte activation during wound healing in the syndecan-1-deficient mouse. Journal of Cell Science 2002; 115: 45174531.
  • 54
    Jester JV, Barry PA, Lind GJ et al. Corneal keratocytes: in situ and in vitro organization of cytoskeletal contractile proteins. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1994; 35: 730743.
  • 55
    Gilger BC. Diseases and surgery of the canine cornea and sclera. In: Veterinary Ophthalmology, 4th edn. (ed. GelattKN) Blackwell Publishing, Ames, 2007; 690752.
  • 56
    Petridou S, Maltseva O, Spanakis S et al. TGFβ receptor expression and Smad2 localization are cell density dependent in fibroblasts. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 2000; 41: 8995.
  • 57
    Lauweryns B, Van Den Oord JJ, Volpes R et al. Distribution of very late activation integrins in the human cornea. An immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1991; 32: 20792085.
  • 58
    Collins L, Fabre JW. A synthetic peptide vector system for optimal gene delivery to corneal endothelium. Journal of Gene Medicine 2004; 6: 185194.
  • 59
    Tripathi BJ, Kwait PS, Tripathi RC. Corneal growth factors: a new generation of ophthalmic pharmaceuticals. Cornea 1990; 9: 29.
  • 60
    Sheppard D. Roles of αv integrins in vascular biology and pulmonary pathology. Current Opinion in Cell Biology 2004; 16: 552557.
  • 61
    Wenner CE, Yan S. Biphasic role of TGF-beta1 in signal transduction and crosstalk. Journal of Cell Physiology 2003; 196: 4250.
  • 62
    Kim HS, Shang T, Chen Z et al. TGF-beta 1 stimulates production of gelatinase (MMP-9), collagenases (MMP-1, -13) and stromelysins (MMP-3, -10, -11) by human corneal epithelial cells. Experimental Eye Research 2004; 79: 263274.
  • 63
    Ljubimov AV, Burgeson RE, Butkowski RJ et al. Extracellular matrix alterations in human corneas with bullous keratopathy. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1996; 37: 9971007.
  • 64
    Ljubimov AV, Saghizadeh M, Pytela R et al. Increased expression of tenascin-C binding epithelial integrins in human bullous keratopathy corneas. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 2001; 49: 13411350.
  • 65
    Maseruka H, Ridgway A, Tullo A et al. Developmental changes in patterns of expression of tenascin-C variants in the human cornea. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 2000; 41: 41014107.
  • 66
    Joshi P, Chung CY, Aukhil I et al. Endothelial cells adhere to the RGD domain and the fibrinogen-like terminal knob of tenascin. Journal of Cell Science 1993; 106: 389400.
  • 67
    Levine D, Rockey DC, Milner TA et al. Expression of the integrin alpha8 beta1 during pulmonary and hepatic fibrosis. American Journal of Pathology 2000; 156: 19271935.
  • 68
    Vorkauf W, Vorkauf M, Nolle B et al. Adhesion molecules in normal and pathological corneas. An immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 1995; 233: 209219.
  • 69
    Rosenberg M, Tervo T, Petroll W et al. In vivo confocal microscopy of patients with corneal recurrent erosion syndrome or epithelial basement membrane dystrophy. Ophthalmology 2000; 107: 565573.
  • 70
    Cook C, Wilcock B. A clinical and histopathologic study of canine persistent corneal ulcers. 26th Annual meeting of the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists, September 27–30, 1995; 139.(Abstract)
  • 71
    Bentley E, Abrams G, Covitz D et al. Morphology and immunohistochemistry of spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCED) in dogs. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 2001; 42: 22622269.
  • 72
    Latvala T, Tervo K, Tervo T. Reassembly of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin and laminin in rabbit corneal basement membrane after excimer laser surgery: a 12-month follow-up. CLAO Journal 1995; 21: 125129.
  • 73
    Pal-Ghosh S, Pajoohesh-Ganji A, Brown M et al. A mouse model for the study of recurrent corneal epithelial erosions: α9β1 integrin implicated in progression of the disease. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 2004; 45: 17751788.
  • 74
    Ljubimov AV, Huang Z, Huang GH et al. Human corneal epithelial basement membrane and integrin alterations in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 1998; 46: 10331041.
  • 75
    Good KL, Maggs DJ, Hollingsworth SR et al. Corneal sensitivity in dogs with diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Veterinary Research 2003; 64: 711.
  • 76
    Pearce JW, Janardhan KS, Caldwell S et al. Angiostatin and integrin αvβ3 in the feline, bovine, canine, equine, porcine and murine retina and cornea. Veterinary Ophthalmology 2007; 10: 313319.
  • 77
    Friedlander M, Brooks PC, Shaffer RW et al. Definition of two angiogenic pathways by distinct alpha v integrins. Science 1995; 270: 15001502.
  • 78
    Muether PS, Dell S, Kociok N et al. The role of integrin alpha5beta1 in the regulation of corneal neovascularization. Experimental Eye Research 2007; 85: 356365.
  • 79
    Ecoiffier T, El Annan J, Rashid S et al. Modulation of integrin a4b1 (VLA-4) in dry eye disease. Archives of Ophthalmology 2008; 126: 16951699.
  • 80
    Tuori AJ, Virtanen I, Aine E et al. The immunohistochemical composition of corneal basement membrane in keratoconus. Current Eye Research 1997; 16: 792801.
  • 81
    Dorbandt DM, Waite KJ, Morgan TW et al. Localization of integrin subunits α3, α6, β1, and β4 in the normal canine cornea. 39th Annual meeting of the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists, October 15–18, 2008; 8.(Abstract)