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Keywords:

  • camel;
  • llamas (Lama glama);
  • Schirmer tear test;
  • tear production

Abstract

Purpose  To determine the normal reference range for Schirmer tear test (STT) values in clinically normal llamas (Lama glama)

Animals  Nine captive llamas (Lama glama) (seven females and two males) were used in this study.

Procedure  Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed without chemical restraint. STT I values were evaluated in both eyes of all llamas using a commercial STT strip of a single lot number (Schirmer-Tränentest®, Germany). STT II value was also measured in both eyes of seven female llamas.

Results  No statistically significant differences among ages or between right and left eyes were found for any of the results. The mean ± SD STT I of 18 eyes of nine llamas was 17.3 ± 1.1 mm/min (Range 15–19 mm/min). The mean ± SD STT II of 14 eyes of seven llamas was 15.4 ± 1.7 mm/min (Range 12.5–17.5 mm/min). A paired samples t-test demonstrated that there was a significant difference between the STT I and II values (P = 0.001).

Conclusion  This study provides novel data for normal reference ranges of STT I and II values in healthy llamas. Results of this study may assist veterinarians in the diagnosis of ocular surface disease and syndromes affecting the tear film in these species.