• Bryozoa;
  • cilia;
  • cyphonautes;
  • feeding;
  • filter;
  • larva;
  • lophophorate;
  • sieve;
  • suspension


Cyphonautes larvae of a bryozoan, Membranipora membranacea, used several ciliary mechanisms to capture algal cells upstream from the lateral band of cilia that produces a feeding current. (1) Lateral cilia changed beat and a backcurrent occurred at the time and place that particles were retained. (2) Algal cells were sieved and held stationary at the upstream (frontal) side of a row of laterofrontal cilia that were not beating. (3) Localized extension of cilia toward the inhalant chamber, coincident with particle captures, indicated that laterofrontal cilia flick toward the inhalant chamber. These flicks may aid transport of captured particles toward the mouth. Thus my earlier report that larvae only sieve, in contrast to the adults (which have an active ciliary response) was in error. The similar ciliary bands in adult and larval bryozoans and in other lophophorates (brachiopods, and phoronids) suggest that these animals share a core repertoire of ciliary behaviours in the capture and concentration of suspended food particles.