Comparative morphology of mandibular structures in lycid larvae and its phylogenetic implications (Polyphaga, Hexapoda)


Sergey V. Kazantsev, Insect Centre, Donetskaya 13–326, Moscow 109651, Russia. E-mail:


The morphology of the larval mandibular structures of the family Lycidae (Polyphaga) is characterized by facultative dicondyly, posterior articulation with long mandibular rods, lateral location of the anterior condyle and its articulation with a paired non-cranial structure. It is compared to that of Eucrustacea, Chilopoda, Entognatha, Microcoryphia and Zygentoma and found to be more reminiscent of the Entognatha. The phylogenetic implications of this conclusion are discussed, with the Pterygota and Dicondylia hypothesized to be non-monophyletic.