• confocal laser scanning microscopy;
  • musculature;
  • Rotifera;
  • scanning electron microscopy;
  • trophy


Wilts, E.F., Wulfken, D., Ahlrichs, W.H. and Martínez Arbizu, P. 2012. The musculature of Squatinella rostrum (Milne, 1886) (Rotifera: Lepadellidae) as revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy with additional new data on its trophi and overall morphology.—Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 93: 14–27.

The monogonont rotifer Squatinella rostrum was investigated with light, scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal new morphological data on its inner and outer anatomy. In total, the visualized somatic musculature displays five paired longitudinal muscles (musculi longitudinales I–V) and nine circular muscles (musculi circulares I–IX). Compared to other species, S. rostrum is characterized by the absence of several longitudinal and circular muscles (e.g. musculus longitudinalis capitis, corona sphincter and pars coronalis). A reconstruction of the mastax musculature revealed a total number of seven paired and two unpaired mastax muscles. Possibly homologous somatic and mastax muscles in other, thus far investigated rotifers are discussed. Moreover, we provide a phylogenetic evaluation of the revealed morphological characters and suggest possible autapomorphic characters supporting Squatinella and Lepadellidae. Finally, we refer to some striking similarities in the morphology, ecology and way of movement of Squatinella and Bryceella that may indicate a closer relationship of both taxa.