Pelli-Martins, A.A., Machado-Santos, C., Sales, A. and de Brito-Gitirana, L. 2011. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural observations of the esophagus morphology of Rinella icterica (Anuran, Bufonidae). —Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 93: 373–380.
The esophagus of Rinella icterica was analyzed by employing histochemical methods and lectin histochemistry at light microscopy as well as by transmission electron microscopy. The mucosa was composed of a ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium with goblet cells, overlying a lamina propria. The goblet cells contained neutral and acid glycoconjugates and were positive for galactose residues. Moreover, two types of goblet cells were identified; one type was positive for mannose, and the other was negative. Serotonin-immunoreactive cells (5HT-IR) occurred randomly scattered at the base of the epithelium; they were also localized between the mucous cells of the gland. Both submucosa and adventitia were composed of loose connective tissue, and the muscularis was formed by smooth muscle. Although the basic morphology of the esophagus of R. icterica is similar to that of mammals, the esophagus showed some morphological differences that are likely to be related to the specific physiology of the tissue.