We carried out a phylogeographic study using mtDNA (COII) for the endemic springtail Desoria klovstadi (formerly Isotoma klovstadi) from northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Low levels of sequence divergence (≤ 1.6%) across 26 unique haplotypes (from 69 individuals) were distributed according to geographic location. Cape Hallett and Daniell Peninsula contained the highest nucleotide (both > 0.004) and haplotype (both > 0.9) diversity with 10 (of 16) and 8 (of 12) unique haplotypes, respectively. All other populations (Football Saddle, Crater Cirque, Cape Jones) had lower diversity with 2–4 unique haplotypes. Across the 69 individuals from five populations there was only a single haplotype shared between two populations (Daniell Peninsula and Football Saddle). Furthermore, nested clade analyses revealed that some of the Daniell Peninsula haplotypes were more closely related to Football Saddle haplotypes than to any other population. Such discrete haplotype groupings suggest historical (rare) dispersal across the Pleistocene (1.8 mya−11 kya) and Holocene (11 kya–present), coupled with repeated extinction, range contraction and expansion events, and/or incomplete sampling across the species range. The nested clade analyses reveal that a common pattern of climatic and geological history over long-term glacial habitat fragmentation has determined the geographic and haplotype distributions found for D. klovstadi.