Tethyan relicts on continental coastlines of the northwestern Pacific Ocean and Australasia: molecular phylogeny and fossil record of batillariid gastropods (Caenogastropoda, Cerithioidea)


  • Tomowo Ozawa,

  • Frank Köhler,

  • David G. Reid,

  • Matthias Glaubrecht

David G. Reid, Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK. E-mail: d.reid@nhm.ac.uk
Tomowo Ozawa, Department of World Heritage, Cyber University, Nagoya Office, Ikegami-cho 2-7-1, Ikegami Jyutaku R203, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-0029, Japan. E-mail: ozawa-ciber-u@rhythm.ocn.ne.jp
Frank Köhler, Matthias Glaubrecht, Department of Malacozoology, Museum of Natural History, Humboldt University, 10115 Berlin, Germany. Current address of F. Köhler: Australian Museum, 6 College Street, Sydney NSW 2010, Australia. E-mails: frank.koehler@austmus.gov.au, matthias.glaubrecht@museum.hu-berlin.de


The Batillariidae are a family of cerithioidean gastropods consisting of 14 living species, classified in six to eight genera. They are abundant on sandy mudflats and sometimes on rocky shores, on continental margins in the warm-temperate to tropical regions of the northwestern Pacific Ocean, Australasia and the Americas. Using samples from all 14 nominal batillariid species, we present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis constructed from two genes, mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 28S rRNA, with taxa from four marine cerithioidean families as outgroups (Cerithiidae, Modulidae, Planaxidae, Potamididae). The Batillariidae as traditionally conceived are not monophyletic, because the Neotropical ‘batillariids’Lampanella and Rhinocoryne are sister to the Planaxidae. The monophyletic Batillariidae sensu stricto are restricted to the northwestern Pacific and Australasia; we suggest a revised generic classification consistent with our phylogenetic hypothesis and recognize the four genera Batillaria, Pyrazus, Velacumantus and Zeacumantus. We propose a definition of the family using shell characters, as a basis for a review of the extensive fossil record. Batillariids appeared in the Late Cretaceous or Palaeocene, and the extinct genera Pyrazopsis, Vicinocerithium and Granulolabium became diverse in the Tethyan realm before the group disappeared from Europe at the end of the Miocene. The Batillariidae s. s. reached Australia and New Zealand by the Late Oligocene, and the genera Pyrazus, Velacumantus and Zeacumantus still survive in this refugium of Tethyan fauna. Two lineages, Batillaria and the extinct Tateiwaia, migrated north to China and Japan in the Early Miocene, to establish the present disjunct distribution of this relictual group in southern Australasia and the Oriental region.