Reid, D. G., Dyal, P. & Williams, S.T. (2012) A global molecular phylogeny of 147 periwinkle species (Gastropoda, Littorininae). —Zoologica Scripta, 41, 125–136.
Complete species-level molecular phylogenies have been published for several genera of Littorinidae (e.g. Echinolittorina, Littoraria). Here we add new sequence data from three genes (28S rRNA, 12S rRNA, cytochrome oxidase c subunit I) for single specimens of an additional 24 species, to make a data set of 147 (97%) of the 152 recognized species of the subfamily Littorininae. This three-gene data set is analysed to produce a phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily, which includes the first complete species-level phylogeny of the genus Peasiella and the first three-gene phylogeny of all Littorina species. The non-planktotrophic species of Littorina have previously been classified together (as subgenus Neritrema), implying a single origin of this developmental mode. Tests of this hypothesis with the new data are inconclusive, and resolution is not improved in a tree constructed from five genes (adding previously published sequences of 16S rRNA and cytochrome b). Using available fossils for calibration we generate a BEAST chronogram, which emphasizes that the radiation of Littorina is more recent than that of other littorinine genera. A database is provided, listing all known species of Littorininae, with their distributions, development, ecology and gene sequences, as a tool for future evolutionary studies of this model group.