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A global molecular phylogeny of 147 periwinkle species (Gastropoda, Littorininae)

Authors

  • David G. Reid,

  • Patricia Dyal,

  • Suzanne T. Williams


Corresponding author: David G. Reid, Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK. E-mail: d.reid@nhm.ac.uk
Patricia Dyal & Suzanne T. Williams, Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK. E-mails: p.dyal@nhm.ac.uk, s.williams@nhm.ac.uk

Abstract

Reid, D. G., Dyal, P. & Williams, S.T. (2012) A global molecular phylogeny of 147 periwinkle species (Gastropoda, Littorininae). —Zoologica Scripta, 41, 125–136.

Complete species-level molecular phylogenies have been published for several genera of Littorinidae (e.g. Echinolittorina, Littoraria). Here we add new sequence data from three genes (28S rRNA, 12S rRNA, cytochrome oxidase c subunit I) for single specimens of an additional 24 species, to make a data set of 147 (97%) of the 152 recognized species of the subfamily Littorininae. This three-gene data set is analysed to produce a phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily, which includes the first complete species-level phylogeny of the genus Peasiella and the first three-gene phylogeny of all Littorina species. The non-planktotrophic species of Littorina have previously been classified together (as subgenus Neritrema), implying a single origin of this developmental mode. Tests of this hypothesis with the new data are inconclusive, and resolution is not improved in a tree constructed from five genes (adding previously published sequences of 16S rRNA and cytochrome b). Using available fossils for calibration we generate a BEAST chronogram, which emphasizes that the radiation of Littorina is more recent than that of other littorinine genera. A database is provided, listing all known species of Littorininae, with their distributions, development, ecology and gene sequences, as a tool for future evolutionary studies of this model group.

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