Claremont, M., Reid, D.G. & Williams, S.T. (2012) Speciation and dietary specialization in Drupa, a genus of predatory marine snails (Gastropoda: Muricidae). —Zoologica Scripta, 41, 137–149.
We test the competing predictions of allopatric speciation and of ecological speciation by dietary specialization in Drupa, an Indo-Pacific genus of carnivorous marine gastropods in the family Muricidae. We use a well-resolved molecular phylogeny (reconstructed from one nuclear and two mitochondrial genes) to show the validity of the traditional species D. elegans, D. rubusidaeus, D. clathrata, D. morum and D. speciosa.‘Drupa ricinus’ is shown to consist of three species: D. ricinus s. s., D. albolabris and a new species, possibly endemic to Japan. ‘Purpura’aperta is transferred to Drupa. Despite potential widespread dispersal and a high degree of range overlap among sister species, range sizes between sister species are highly asymmetric, suggesting that speciation has been predominately peripatric. The exception is the sister pair D. ricinus s. s. and D. albolabris, which have symmetric range sizes and are sympatric over broad Indo-Pacific ranges. Such symmetry and extensive sympatry are contrary to the predictions of the (peripatric) allopatric model of speciation. Nevertheless, contrary to the predictions of an ecological speciation model based upon dietary specialization, broad dietary range appears to be identical between the species. Small differences in microhabitat preferences (or hypothetical dietary specialization at a fine taxonomic scale) may have been significant in the speciation process or, if initial divergence was allopatric, in permitting subsequent sympatry. Broad dietary shifts appear to have accompanied more ancient divergences within the genus Drupa.