SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.

  • *Adams, S. (2005). Positive emotions at work: An analysis of workplace scenarios. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Allen, D.G., Weeks, K.P., & Moffitt, K.R. (2005). Turnover intentions and voluntary turnover: The moderating roles of self-monitoring, locus of control, proactive personality, and risk aversion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 980990.
  • *Allen, T.D., Facteau, J.D., & Facteau, C.L. (2004). Structured interviewing for OCB: Construct validity, faking, and the effects of question type. Human Performance, 17, 124.
  • *Allen, T.D., & O'Brien, K.E. (2006). Formal mentoring programs and organizational attraction. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 17, 4358.
  • *Amo, B.W. (2006). The influence from corporate entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship on white-collar workers' employee innovation behavior. International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 3, 284298.
  • *Aryee, S., Srinivas, E., & Tan, H.H. (2005). Rhythms of life: Antecedents and outcomes of work–family balance in employed parents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 132146.
  • Ashford, S.J. (1986). Feedback-seeking in individual adaptation: A resource perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 465487.
  • Ashford, S.J., & Black, J.S. (1996). Proactivity during organizational entry: The role of desire for control. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 199214.
  • Ashford, S.J., Blatt, R., & VandeWalle, D. (2003). Reflections on the looking glass: A review of research on feedback-seeking behavior in organizations. Journal of Management, 29, 773799.
  • Ashford, S.J., & Cummings, L.L. (1983). Feedback as an individual resource: Personal strategies of creating information. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 32, 370398.
  • Ashford, S.J., & Cummings, L.L. (1985). Proactive feedback seeking: The instrumental use of the information environment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 58, 6779.
  • *Baba, V.V., Tourigny, L., Xiaoyun, W., & Weimin, L. (2009). Proactive personality and work performance in China: The moderating effects of emotional exhaustion and perceived safety climate. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 26, 2337.
  • Baer, M., & Frese, M. (2003). Innovation is not enough: Climates for initiative and psychological safety, process innovations, and firm performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 4568.
  • Baer, M., & Oldham, G.R. (2006). The curvilinear relation between experienced creative time pressure and creativity: Moderating effects of openness to experience and support for creativity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 963970.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman and Co.
  • *Barnett, B.R., & Bradley, L. (2007). The impact of organizational support for career development on career satisfaction. Career Development International, 12, 617636.
  • Barrick, M.R., Mount, M.K., & Judge, T.A. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium: What do we know and where do we go next? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9, 930.
  • *Bassyiouny, M. (2007). Modification and evaluation of a personal initiative training for job seekers. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Bateman, T.S., & Crant, J.M. (1993). The proactive component of organizational behavior: A measure and correlates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 103118.
  • *Bayas, N. (2004). Zielbindung und Zielerreichung in Organisationen: Unabhängige und synergistische Effekte von Führung und Selbstregulation [Goal commitment and goal attainment in organizations: Independent and synergistic effects of leadership and self-regulation]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Becherer, R.C., & Maurer, J.G. (1999). The proactive personality disposition and entrepreneurial behavior among small company presidents. Journal of Small Business Management, 37, 2836.
  • Becker, T.E., & Vance, R.J. (1993). Construct validity of three types of organizational citizenship behavior: An illustration of the direct product model with refinements. Journal of Management, 19, 663682.
  • *Belschak, F.D., & Den Hartog, D.N. (2010). Pro-self, prosocial, and pro-organizational foci of proactive behavior: Differential antecedents and consequences. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 475498.
  • Berg, J.M., Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J.E. (2010). Perceiving and responding to challenges in job crafting at different ranks: When proactivity requires adaptivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 158186.
  • *Bettencourt, L.A. (2004). Change-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors: The direct and moderating influence of goal orientation. Journal of Retailing, 80, 165180.
  • *Bettencourt, L.A., Gwinner, K., & Meuter, M.L. (2001). A comparison of attitude, personality, and knowledge predictors of service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 2941.
  • Bindl, U.K., & Parker, S.K. (2010). Proactive work behavior: Forward-thinking and change-oriented action in organizations. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 2, ch. 19). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Binnewies, C., Ohly, S., & Sonnentag, S. (2007). Taking personal initiative and communicating about ideas: What is important for the creative process and for idea creativity? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16, 432455.
  • *Binnewies, C., Sonnentag, S., & Mojza, E. (2009a). Daily performance at work: Feeling recovered in the morning as a predictor of day-level job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 6793.
  • *Binnewies, C., Sonnentag, S., & Mojza, E. (2009b). Feeling recovered and thinking about the good sides of one's work. A longitudinal study on the benefits of non-work experiences for job performance. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14, 243256.
  • *Binnewies, C., Sonnentag, S., & Mojza, E. (2010). Recovery during the weekend and fluctuations in the weekly job performance: A week-level study examining intra-individual relationships. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 419441.
  • *Blakely, G.L., Andrews, M.C., & Fuller, J. (2003). Are chameleons good citizens? A longitudinal study of the relationship between self-monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18, 131144.
  • *Bledow, R. (2005). Development and validation of a situational judgment test on personal initiative. Diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • Bledow, R., & Frese, M. (2009). A situational judgment test of personal initiative and its relationship to performance. Personnel Psychology, 62, 229258.
  • *Boeckel, A. (1997). Multimodale Validierung des Konstrukts Eigeninitiative an einer studentischen Stichprobe [Multimodal validation of personal initiative in a student sample]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Boedecker, N. (2004). Motivations- und Selbstregulationsfaktoren in Zusammenhang mit individuellem Kreativitäts- und Innovationsverhalten in Unternehmen [The relationships of motivational and self-regulatory factors with individual creative and innovative behavior in organizations]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Bohn, V. (2009). Age and work engagement: An investigation of the function of work characteristics. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • Bolino, M.C., & Turnley, W.H. (2005). The personal costs of citizenship behavior: The relationship between individual initiative and role overload, job stress, and work–family conflict. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 740748.
  • *Briscoe, J.P., Hall, D.T., & Frautschy DeMuth, R.L. (2006). Protean and boundaryless careers: An empirical exploration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 3047.
  • Brockner, J., Heuer, L., Siegel, P.A., Wiesenfeld, B., Martin, C., Grover, S., Reed, T., & Bjorgvinsson, S. (1998). The moderating effect of self-esteem in reaction to voice: Converging evidence from five studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 394407.
  • *Brown, D.J., Cober, R.T., Kane, K., Levy, P.E., & Shalhoop, J. (2006). Proactive personality and the successful job search: A field investigation with college graduates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 717726.
  • *Burris, E.R., Detert, J.R., & Chiaburu, D.S. (2008). Quitting before leaving: The mediating effects of psychological attachment and detachment on voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 912922.
  • *Byrne, Z.S., Dik, B.J., & Chiaburu, D.S. (2008). Alternatives to traditional mentoring in fostering career success. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 429442.
  • Campbell, D.T., & Fiske, D.W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait–multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81105.
  • *Chan, D. (2004). Individual differences in tolerance for contradiction. Human Performance, 17, 297324.
  • *Chan, D. (2006). Interactive effects of situational judgment effectiveness and proactive personality on work perceptions and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 475481.
  • *Chiaburu, D.S., & Baker, V.L. (2006). Extra-role behaviors challenging the status-quo: Validity and antecedents of taking charge behaviors. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 620637.
  • *Chiaburu, D.S., Baker, V.L., & Pitariu, A.H. (2006). Beyond being proactive: What (else) matters for career self-management behaviors? Career Development International, 11, 619632.
  • *Chiaburu, D.S., Marinova, S.V., & Lim, A.S. (2007). Helping and proactive extra-role behaviors: The influence of motives, goal orientation, and social context. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 22822293.
  • *Choi, J.N. (2007). Change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior: Effects of work environment characteristics and intervening psychological processes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28, 467484.
  • *Claes, R., & De Witte, H. (2002). Determinants of graduates' preparatory job search behavior: A competitive test of proactive personality and expectancy-value theory. Psychologica Belgica, 42, 251266.
  • *Coch, J. (2003). Ein aktivitätsbezogenes Stressmanagementprogramm: Eine Trainingsevaluation [An activity-related stress-management program: Evaluation of training]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd edn.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Colquitt, J.A., LePine, J.A., & Noe, R.A. (2000). Toward an integrative theory of training motivation: A meta-analytic path analysis of 20 years of research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 678707.
  • *Conlon, E., Devaraj, S., & Matta, K.F. (2001). The relationship between initial quality perceptions and maintenance behavior: The case of the automotive industry. Management Science, 47, 11911202.
  • Conway, J.M., Lombardo, K.C., & Sanders, K.C. (2001). A meta-analysis of incremental validity and nomological networks for subordinate and peer ratings. Human Performance, 14, 267303.
  • *Cools, E., & van den Broeck, H. (2006). Searching the Heffalump: Using traits and cognitive styles to predict entrepreneurial orientation. Unpublished manuscript.
  • Cooper-Hakim, A., & Viswesvaran, C. (2005). The construct of work commitment: Testing an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 241259.
  • Cortina, J.M. (2003). Apples and oranges (and pears, oh my!): The search for moderators in meta-analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 6, 415439.
  • *Crant, J.M. (1995). The proactive personality scale and objective job performance among real estate agents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 532537.
  • *Crant, J.M. (1996). The proactive personality scale as a predictor of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Small Business Management, 34, 4249.
  • Crant, J.M. (2000). Proactive behavior in organizations. Journal of Management, 26, 435462.
  • *Crant, J.M. (2003). Dispositional antecedents of voice behavior in a naturally-occurring setting. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Seattle.
  • *Crant, J.M., & Bateman, T.S. (2000). Charismatic leadership viewed from above: The impact of proactive personality. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 6375.
  • Cronbach, L.J., & Meehl, P.E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281302.
  • *Cunningham, C.J., & De La Rosa, G.M. (2008). The interactive effects of proactive personality and work–family interference on well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13, 271282.
  • *Deckop, J.R., Cirka, C.C., & Andersson, L.M. (2003). Doing unto others: The reciprocity of helping behavior in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 47, 101113.
  • *De Dreu, C.K.W., & Nauta, A. (2009). Self-interest and other-orientation in organizational behavior: Implications for job performance, prosocial behavior, and personal initiative. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 913926.
  • *Deluga, R.J. (1998). American presidential proactivity, charismatic leadership, and rated performance. Leadership Quarterly, 9, 265291.
  • *Den Hartog, D.N., & Belschak, F.D. (2007). Personal initiative, commitment, and affect at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, 601622.
  • *Detert, J.R., & Burris, E.R. (2007). Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open? Academy of Management Journal, 50, 869884.
  • Dudley, N.M., Orvis, K.A., Lebiecki, J.E., & Cortina, J.M. (2006). A meta-analytic investigation of conscientiousness in the prediction of job performance: Examining the intercorrelations and the incremental validity of narrow traits. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 4057.
  • Dutton, J.E., & Ashford, S.J. (1993). Selling issues to top management. Academy of Management Review, 18, 397428.
  • *Eby, L.T., Butts, M., & Lockwood, A. (2003). Predictors of success in the era of the boundaryless career. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 689708.
  • *Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T.N. (2005). Enhancing career benefits of employee proactive personality: The role of fit with jobs and organizations. Personnel Psychology, 58, 859891.
  • Farrell, D. (1983). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect as responses to job dissatisfaction: A multi-dimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 596607.
  • *Fay, D. (1998). Personal initiative: Construct validation of a new concept of performance at work. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam.
  • *Fay, D., & Frese, M. (2001). The concept of personal initiative: An overview of validity studies. Human Performance, 14, 97124.
  • *Fay, D., Luehrmann, H., & Kohl, C. (2004). Proactive climate in a post-reorganization setting: When staff compensate managers' weakness. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 13, 241267.
  • *Fay, D., & Sonnentag, S. (2002). Rethinking the effects of stressors: A longitudinal study on personal initiative. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 221234.
  • Feldman, J.M. (1981). Beyond attribution theory: Cognitive processes in performance appraisal. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 127148.
  • *Finkelstein, L.M., Kulas, J.T., & Dages, K.D. (2003). Age differences in proactive newcomer socialization strategies in two populations. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17, 473502.
  • *Fischer, S. (2008). Enhancing entrepreneurial success in developing countries: The effect of training in personal initiative in small businesses in Uganda. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • Frese, M., & Fay, D. (2001). Personal initiative: An active performance concept for work in the 21st century. Research in Organizational Behavior, 23, 133187.
  • *Frese, M., Fay, D., Hilburger, T., Leng, K., & Tag, A. (1997). The concept of personal initiative: Operationalization, reliability and validity in two German samples. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 139161.
  • *Frese, M., Garst, H., & Fay, D. (2007). Making things happen: Reciprocal relationships between work characteristics and personal initiative (PI) in a four-wave longitudinal structural equation model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 10841102.
  • *Frese, M., Krauss, S.I., Keith, N., Escher, S., Grabarkiewicz, R., Luneng, S.T., Heers, C., Unger, J., & Friedrich, C. (2007). Business owners' action planning and its relationship to business success in three African countries. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 14811498.
  • Frese, M., Kring, W., Soose, A., & Zempel, J. (1996). Personal initiative at work: Differences between East and West Germany. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 3763.
  • *Frese, M., & Morrison, E.W. (2004). LBS study: Individual and group personal initiative and taking charge: Relationships to personality and group performance. London: London Business School.
  • *Frese, M., Teng, E., & Wijnen, C.J.D. (1999). Helping to improve suggestion systems: Predictors of making suggestions in companies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 11391155.
  • *Fritz, C., & Sonnentag, S. (2005). Recovery, health, and job performance: Effects of weekend experiences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 187199.
  • *Fritz, C., & Sonnentag, S. (2009). Antecedents of day-level proactive behavior: A look at job stressors and positive affect during the workday. Journal of Management, 35, 94111.
  • Fuller, J.B., & Marler, L.E. (2009). Change driven by nature: A meta-analytic review of the proactive personality literature. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 329345.
  • *Fuller, J.B., Barnett, T., Hester, K., Relyea, C., & Frey, L. (2007). An exploratory examination of voice behavior from an impression management perspective. Journal of Managerial Issues, 19, 134151.
  • *Fuller, J.B., Marler, L.E., & Hester, K. (2006). Promoting felt responsibility for constructive change and proactive behavior: Exploring aspects of an elaborated model of work design. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 10891120.
  • Funder, D.C. (1980). On seeing ourselves as others see us: Self–other agreement and discrepancy in personality ratings. Journal of Personality, 48, 473493.
  • *Garman, G. (2002). Comparison of selected aspects of personal initiative before and after an initiative training. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Glaub, M.E., & Frese, M. (2005). Training personal initiative to business owners in South Africa. Unpublished manuscript.
  • *Granados, A. (2001). Fehlertraining in der Analyse: Die Wirkung von Heuristiken auf Motivation, Aufmerksamkeit und Leistung [Analyzing error training: The effects of heuristics on motivation, attention, and performance]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Granados, A. (2005). Trainings-Transfer: Eine Langzeitstudie der zugrunde liegenden Prozesse [Training transfer: A longitudinal study on the processes]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • Grant, A.M., & Ashford, S.J. (2008). The dynamics of proactivity at work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 334.
  • Grant, A.M., Fried, Y., Parker, S.K., & Frese, M. (2010). Putting job design in context: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 145157.
  • *Grant, A.M., Parker, S.K., & Collins, C.G. (2009). Getting credit for proactive behavior: Supervisor reactions depend on what you value and how you feel. Personnel Psychology, 62, 3155.
  • *Grant, A.M., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). I won't let you down . . . or will I? Core self-evaluations, other-orientation, anticipated guilt and gratitude, and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 108121.
  • *Griffin, B., & Hesketh, B. (2005). Are conscientious workers adaptable? Australian Journal of Management, 30, 245260.
  • Griffin, M.A., Neal, A., & Parker, S.K. (2007). A new model of work role performance: Positive behavior in uncertain and interdependent contexts. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 327347.
  • *Groos, P. (2005). Transformationale Führung und Eigeninitiative [Transformational leadership and personal initiative]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Gudmundsdottir, D. (2002). Transformational leadership and climate for initiative. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Gunkel, J. (2005). Redefinition von Arbeitsaufgaben: Das Konzept Job Crafting und dessen Zusammenhang mit psychischer Beanspruchung, Arbeitsleistung und Arbeitszufriedenheit [Redefinition of work tasks: Job crafting and its relationship with cognitive demands, job performance and job satisfaction]. Unpublished diploma thesis, Technical University of Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
  • *Hack, N. (2005). Die Arbeitsplatzsuche von Hochschulabsolventen [The job-search of university graduates]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • Hackman, J.R., & Oldham, G.R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 250279.
  • *Hakanen, J.J., Perhoniemi, R., & Toppinen-Tanner, S. (2008). Positive gain spirals at work: From job resources to work engagement, personal initiative and work-unit effectiveness. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73, 7891.
  • Harris, M.M., & Schaubroeck, J. (1988). A meta-analysis of self–supervisor, self–peer, and peer–supervisor ratings. Personnel Psychology, 41, 4362.
  • *Harvey, S., Blouin, C., & Stout, D. (2006). Proactive personality as a moderator of outcomes for young workers experiencing conflict at work. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 10631074.
  • *Hass, L. (2003). Ein psychologisches Training bei Kleinunternehmern: Eine Evaluationsstudie [Psychological training of small business entrepreneurs: An evaluation]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • Hirschman, A.O. (1970). Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Hoffman, B.J., Blair, C.A., Meriac, J.P., & Woehr, D.J. (2007). Expanding the criterion domain? A quantitative review of the OCB Literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 555566.
  • Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance. Human Performance, 11, 129144.
  • *Hornung, S., & Rousseau, D.M. (2007). Active on the job—proactive in change: How autonomy at work contributes to employee support for organizational change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43, 401426.
  • *Hornung, S., Rousseau, D.M., & Glaser, J. (2008). Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 655664.
  • Hough, L.M., & Ones, D.S. (2001). The structure, measurement, validity, and use of personality variables in industrial, work, and organizational psychology. In N.R. Anderson, D.S. Ones, H.K. Sinangil, & C. Viswesvaran (Eds.), International handbook of work and organizational psychology (pp. 233277). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Hunter, J.E., & Schmidt, F.L. (2004). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings (2nd edn.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Ilgen, D.R., & Pulakos, E.D. (1999). Introduction: Employee performance in today's organizations. In D.R. Ilgen & E.D. Pulakos (Eds.), The changing nature of performance (pp. 118). San Francisco, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • *Janssen, O., de Vries, T., & Cozijnsen, A.J. (1998). Voicing by adapting and innovating employees: An empirical study on how personality and environment interact to affect voice behavior. Human Relations, 51, 945967.
  • *Jaramillo, F., Locander, W.B., Spector, P.E., & Harris, E.G. (2007). Getting the job done: Moderating role of initiative on the relationship between intrinsic motivation and adaptive selling. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, XXVII, 5974.
  • Judge, T.A., & Ilies, R. (2002). Relationship of personality to performance motivation: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 797807.
  • Judge, T.A., Jackson, C.L., Shaw, J.C., Scott, B.A., & Rich, B.L. (2007). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: The integral role of individual differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 107127.
  • *Kickul, J., & Walters, J. (2002). Recognizing new opportunities and innovations: The role of strategic orientations and proactivity in Internet firms. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 8, 292308.
  • *Kirby, E.G., & Kirby, S.L. (2006). Improving task performance: The relationship between morningness and proactive thinking. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 27152729.
  • *Kirby, E.G., Kirby, S.L., & Lewis, M.A. (2002). A study of the effectiveness of training proactive thinking. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 15381549.
  • *Koop, S., De Reu, T., & Frese, M. (2000). Sociodemographic factors, entrepreneurial orientation, personal initiative, and environmental problems in Uganda. In M. Frese (Ed.), Success and failure of microbusiness owners in Africa: A psychological approach (pp. 5576). Westport, CT: Quorum.
  • *Korunka, C., Frank, H., Lueger, M., & Mugler, J. (2003). The entrepreneurial personality in the context of resources, environment, and the startup process: A configurational approach. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28, 2342.
  • *Krause, K. (2002). Personal initiative in the work place—a behavior oriented questionnaire. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Krauss, S.I., Frese, M., Friedrich, C., & Unger, J.M. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation: A psychological model of success among southern African business owners. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 14, 315344.
  • *Kuenzl, M. (2004). Job Crafting bei Reinigungskräften—Positive Strategien an einem unterschätzten Arbeitsplatz [Job crafting of university cleaners: Positive strategies at an underestimated workplace]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Kupcha, V. (2008). Unternehmertum in Russland: Ein psychologischer Ansatz [Entrepreneurship in Russia: A psychological approach]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Lambert, T.A., Eby, L.T., & Reeves, M.P. (2006). Predictors of networking intensity and network quality among white-collar job seekers. Journal of Career Development, 32, 351365.
  • *Lang-von Wins, T., & Triebel, C. (2005). Die Kompetenzenbilanz—ein Verfahren zur Förderung eigenverantwortlichen Handelns? Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung, 36, 175190.
  • LaRocco, J.M., House, J.S., & French, J.R.P.J. (1980). Social support, occupational stress, and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 202218.
  • LePine, J.A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D.E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: A critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 5265.
  • LePine, J.A., & Van Dyne, L. (1998). Predicting voice behavior in work groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 853868.
  • *LePine, J.A., & Van Dyne, L. (2001). Voice and cooperative behavior as contrasting forms of contextual performance: Evidence of differential relationships with Big Five personality characteristics and cognitive ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 326336.
  • Li, W.D., Song, Z., Arvey, R.D., & Zhang, Z. (2012). Why does proactive personality breed work success? Testing mediated relationships and genetic and environmental influences. NUS Business School, submitted for publication.
  • *Lisbona, A., Palaci, F.J., Salanova, M., & Frese, M. (2012, April). The effects of work engagement and self-efficacy on personal initiative and performance. Unpublished manuscript.
  • *Lozada-Lehmann, M.E. (2007). Psychologische Erfolgsfaktoren in Peru: Die Rolle von Strategien, Eigeninitiative, unternehmerischer Orientierung und Kultur [Psychological success factors in Peru: The role of strategies, personal initiative, entrepreneurial orientation, and culture]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *McAllister, D.J., Kamdar, D., Morrison, E.W., & Turban, D.B. (2008). Disentangling role perceptions: How perceived role breadth, discretion, instrumentality, and efficacy relate to helping and taking charge. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 12001211.
  • Macey, W.H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 1, 330.
  • McCrae, R.R., Costa, P.T.J., Ostendorf, F., Angleitner, A., Hrebícková, M., Avia, M.D., & Smith, P.B. (2000). Nature over nurture: Temperament, personality, and life span development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 173186.
  • *Major, D.A., Turner, J.E., & Fletcher, T.D. (2006). Linking proactive personality and the Big Five to motivation to learn and development activity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 927935.
  • *Marrone, J.A. (2004). Cutting across team boundaries: Antecedents and implications of individual boundary-spanning behavior within consulting teams. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, Maryland.
  • Meyer, J.P., Stanley, D.J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 2052.
  • *Miller, D., & Lee, J. (2001). The people make the process: Commitment to employees, decision making, and performance. Journal of Management, 27, 163189.
  • *Miron, E., Erez, M., & Naveh, E. (2004). Do personal characteristics and cultural values that promote innovation, quality, and efficiency compete or complement each other? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 175199.
  • *Moon, H., Kamdar, D., Mayer, D.M., & Takeuchi, R. (2008). Me or we? The role of personality and justice as other-centered antecedents to innovative citizenship behaviors within organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 8494.
  • Moorman, R.H., & Blakely, G.L. (1995). Individualism–collectivism as an individual difference predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 127142.
  • *Moorman, R.H., Blakely, G.L., & Niehoff, B.P. (1998). Does perceived organizational support mediate the relationship between procedural justice and organizational citizenship behavior? Academy of Management Journal, 41, 351357.
  • Morrison, E.W. (2002). Newcomers' relationships: The role of social network ties during socialization. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 11491160.
  • *Morrison, E.W. (2006). Doing the job well: An investigation of pro-social rule breaking. Journal of Management, 32, 528.
  • *Morrison, E.W., & Phelps, C.C. (1999). Taking charge at work: Extrarole efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 403419.
  • *Myers, K.K., & McPhee, R.D. (2006). Influences on member assimilation in workgroups in high-reliability organizations: A multilevel analysis. Human Communication Research, 32, 440468.
  • *Naus, F., van Iterson, A., & Roe, R. (2007). Organizational cynicism: Extending the exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect model of employees' responses to adverse conditions in the workplace. Human Relations, 60, 683718.
  • Nicholson, N. (1984). A theory of work role transitions. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 172191.
  • Nisbett, R.E., & Wilson, T.D. (1977). The halo effect: Evidence for unconscious alteration of judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 250256.
  • *Ohly, S., & Fritz, C. (2007). Challenging the status quo: What motivates proactive behavior? Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 80, 623629.
  • *Ohly, S., Sonnentag, S., & Pluntke, F. (2006). Routinization, work characteristics and their relationships with creative and proactive behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 257279.
  • Oldham, G.R., & Hackman, J.R. (2010). Not what it was and not what it will be: The future of job design research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 463479.
  • Parker, S.K. (1998). Enhancing role breadth self-efficacy: The roles of job enrichment and other organizational interventions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 835852.
  • Parker, S.K. (2000). From passive to proactive motivation: The importance of flexible role orientations and role breadth self-efficacy. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49, 447469.
  • Parker, S.K., Bindl, U.K., & Strauss, K. (2010). Making things happen: A model of proactive motivation. Journal of Management, Prepublished 14 May 2010. DOI: 2010.1177/0149206310363732.
  • *Parker, S.K., & Collins, C.G. (2010). Taking stock: Integrating and differentiating multiple proactive behaviors. Journal of Management, 36, 633662.
  • *Parker, S.K., & Sprigg, C.A. (1999). Minimizing strain and maximizing learning: The role of job demands, job control, and proactive personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 925939.
  • Parker, S.K., & Turner, N. (2002). Work design and individual work performance: Research findings and an agenda for future inquiry. In S. Sonnentag (Ed.), Psychological management of individual performance (pp. 6993). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
  • *Parker, S.K., Williams, H.M., & Turner, N. (2006). Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 636652.
  • *Peiró, J.M., García-Montalvo, J., & Gracia, F. (2002). How do young people cope with job flexibility? Demographic and psychological antecedents of the resistance to accept a job with non-preferred flexibility features. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51, 4366.
  • *Pittig, D. (2008). Learning from management errors of others: Impact of training with error stories on transfer performance and innovativity. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • Podsakoff, N.P., Whiting, S.W., Podsakoff, P.M., & Blume, B.D. (2009). Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 122141.
  • Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Moorman, R.H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1, 107142.
  • Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Paine, J.B., & Bachrach, D.G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26, 513563.
  • *Porath, C.L., & Bateman, T.S. (2006). Self-regulation: From goal orientation to job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 185192.
  • *Prabhu, V.P. (2008). Understanding the effect of proactive personality on job-related outcomes in an organizational change setting. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Auburn University, Auburn.
  • *Raemdonck, I. (2006). Self-directedness in learning and career progress: A study in lower-qualified employees in Flanders. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Universiteit Gent, Gent, The Netherlands.
  • *Rank, J. (2000). Motivational and situational predictors of role innovation and personal initiative in organizations. Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.
  • *Rank, J. (2006). Leadership predictors of proactive organizational behavior: Facilitating personal initiative, voice behavior, and exceptional service performance. Unpublished dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa.
  • *Raub, S. (2008). Does bureaucracy kill individual initiative? The impact of structure on organizational citizenship behavior in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, 179186.
  • Rauch, A., & Frese, M. (2007). Let's put the person back into entrepreneurship research: A meta-analysis on the relationship between business owners' personality traits, business creation, and success. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 16, 353385.
  • *Rief, S. (2002). Formalization of small business in Africa: A psychological approach. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • Riketta, M. (2008). The causal relation between job attitudes and performance: A meta-analysis of panel studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 472481.
  • *Rode, J.C., Arthaud-Day, M.L., Mooney, C.H., Near, J.P., & Baldwin, T.T. (2008). Ability and personality predictors of salary, perceived job success, and perceived career success in the initial career stage. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 16, 292299.
  • *Rusbult, C.E., Farrell, D., Rogers, G., & Mainous, A.G., III (1988). Impact of exchange variables on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: An integrative model of responses to declining job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 31, 599627.
  • *Salanova, M., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2008). A cross-national study of work engagement as a mediator between job resources and proactive behavior. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19, 116131.
  • *Schaper, N. (2005). Trainingsmaßnahmen für Erwerbslose zur Reintegration in den ersten Arbeitsmarkt—eine Evaluation [Training to reintegrate unemployed into the job market: An evaluation study]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Schildbach, S. (2002). “Mitarbeiter—Unternehmer in eigener Sache?” Entwicklung eines Trainings zur Steigerung von Eigeninitiative und Bewertung der Transfereffekte [“Employees as independent entrepreneurs?” Development of training to increase personal initiative and an analysis of the transfer effects]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Schmidt, C.A. (2004). Eigeninitiative und Taking Charge: Der Einfluss soziokultureller Kontexte auf das Arbeitsverhalten von Mitarbeitern [Personal initiative and taking charge: The influence of socio-cultural contexts on employee work behavior]. University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • Scott, S.G., & Bruce, R.A. (1994). Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 580607.
  • Scullen, S.E., Mount, M.K., & Goff, M. (2000). Understanding the latent structure of job performance ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 956970.
  • *Seibert, S.E., Crant, J.M., & Kraimer, M.L. (1999). Proactive personality and career success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 416427.
  • *Seibert, S.E., Kraimer, M.L., & Crant, J.M. (2001). What do proactive people do? A longitudinal model linking proactive personality and career success. Personnel Psychology, 54, 845874.
  • *Shaw, J.D., Duffy, M.K., & Stark, E.M. (2001). Team reward attitude: Construct development and initial validation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 903917.
  • *Sonnentag, S. (2003). Recovery, work engagement, and proactive behavior: A new look at the interface between nonwork and work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 518528.
  • Spector, P.E. (2006). Method variance in organizational research: Truth or urban legend? Organizational Research Methods, 9, 221232.
  • Spector, P.E., & Fox, S. (2010). Counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: Are they opposite forms of active behavior? Applied Psychology: An International Review, 59, 2139.
  • Speier, C., & Frese, M. (1997). Generalized self-efficacy as a mediator and moderator between control and complexity at work and personal initiative: A longitudinal field study in East Germany. Human Performance, 10, 171192.
  • *Stamper, C.L., & Van Dyne, L. (2001). Work status and organizational citizenship behavior: A field study of restaurant employees. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 517536.
  • Strauss, K., Griffin, M.A., & Rafferty, A.E. (2009). Proactivity directed toward the team and organization: The role of leadership, commitment and role-breadth self-efficacy. British Journal of Management, 20, 279291.
  • *Tangirala, S., & Ramanujam, R. (2008). Exploring nonlinearity in employee voice: The effects of personal control and organizational identification. Academy of Management Journal, 51, 11891203.
  • *Taris, T.W., & Wielenga-Meijer, E.G.A. (2009). Work characteristics, personality, and worker well-being: The effects of personal initiative. Manuscript submitted for publication.
  • Thomas, J.P., Whitman, D.S., & Viswesvaran, C. (2010). Employee proactivity in organizations: A comparative meta-analysis of emergent proactive constructs. Journal Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 275300.
  • *Thompson, J.A. (2005). Proactive personality and job performance: A social capital perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 10111017.
  • *Tornau, K. (2004). Job Crafting in der Gastronomie: Eine neue Form des Arbeitsverhaltens [Job crafting in the hospitality industry: A new form of work behavior]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Tornau, K. (in preparation). A close-up of proactivity at work: Exploring antecedents and consequences of personal initiative and related concepts of proactive behavior. Unpublished dissertation, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Tucker, S., Chmiel, N., Turner, N., Hershcovis, M., & Stride, C.B. (2008). Perceived organizational support for safety and employee safety voice: The mediating role of coworker support for safety. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13, 319330.
  • *Utsch, A. (2004). Psychologische Einflussgrößen von Unternehmensgründung und Unternehmenserfolg [Psychological factors of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial success]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
  • *Utsch, A., & Rauch, A. (2000). Innovativeness and initiative as mediators between achievement orientation and venture performance. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9, 4562.
  • Vance, R.J., MacCallum, R.C., Coovert, M.D., & Hedge, J.W. (1988). Construct validity of multiple job performance measures using confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 7480.
  • *Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J.A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 108119.
  • *Van Dyne, L., Graham, G.W., & Dienesch, R.M. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 765802.
  • *Van Dyne, L., Kamdar, D., & Joireman, J. (2008). In-role perceptions buffer the negative impact of low LMX on helping and enhance the positive impact of high LMX on voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 11951207.
  • van Hooft, E.A.J., van der Flier, H., & Minne, M.R. (2006). Construct validity of multi-source performance ratings: An examination of the relationship of self-, supervisor-, and peer-ratings with cognitive and personality measures. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14, 6781.
  • Van Maanen, J., & Schein, E.H. (1979). Toward a theory of organizational socialization. In B.M. Staw (Ed.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 1, pp. 209264). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Van Scotter, J.R., & Motowidlo, S.J. (1996). Interpersonal facilitation and job dedication as separate facets of contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 525531.
  • *van Veldhoven, M., & Dorenbosch, L. (2008). Age, proactivity and career development. Career Development International, 13, 112131.
  • Warr, P., & Bourne, A. (2000). Associations between rating content and self–other agreement in multi-source feedback. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9, 321334.
  • Warr, P., & Fay, D. (2001). Age and personal initiative at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10, 343353.
  • West, M.A. (1987). Role innovation in the world of work. British Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 305315.
  • West, M.A. (2002). Sparkling fountains or stagnant ponds: An integrative model of creativity and innovation implementation in work groups. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51, 355424.
  • *Whiting, S.W., Podsakoff, P.M., & Pierce, J.R. (2008). Effects of task performance, helping, voice, and organizational loyalty on performance appraisal ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 125139.
  • Williams, L.J., & Anderson, S.E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of citizenship behavior and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17, 601617.
  • Withey, M.J., & Cooper, W.H. (1989). Predicting exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34, 521539.
  • Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J.E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26, 179201.
  • Zempel, J. (1999). Selbständigkeit in den neuen Bundesländern: Prädiktoren, Erfolgsfaktoren und Folgen—Ergebnisse einer Längsschnittuntersuchung [Self-employment in the New German States: Predictors, success factors, and consequences—results of a longitudinal study]. In K. Moser, B. Batinic, & J. Zempel (Eds.), Unternehmerisch erfolgreiches Handeln (pp. 6991). Goettingen: Verlag für Angewandte Psychologie.
  • *Zhao, X. (2005). Active development of social networks and relationships to Chinese small and micro business owners' success. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.