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Drawing on the self-interest and moral virtues perspectives of justice, we examine how self-esteem and justice orientation as individual difference factors moderate the effects of individual-targeted and group-targeted justice on helping behaviors and intention to leave. A scenario-based study was conducted using a total sample of 624 Japanese undergraduate students. The results highlighted the difference between the moderating roles of self-esteem and justice orientation. Self-esteem moderated the effect of individual-targeted procedural justice on intention to leave such that the effect was stronger when self-esteem was high. In contrast, justice orientation mainly moderated the effects of group-targeted procedural and distributive justice on helping behaviors such that the effects were weaker when justice orientation was high. Implications of our findings and future research directions are discussed.