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Summary— Although percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) were introduced clinically at approximately the same time (1980–1981), their clinical progress appeared to progress along separate paths and to compete with each other. After 5 years it has become apparent that for optimal removal of nearly all renal stones by minimal or non-invasive techniques, PCNL and ESWL are required either separately or as combined procedures. This review traces the development, introduction and progress of these procedures and defines the current indications for extracorporeal, percutaneous and open renal stone surgery.