• 1
    Feldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou DG, Krane RJ, McKinlay JB. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Urol 1994; 151: 5461
  • 2
    Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harvig N, Van Moorslaar RJ. Sexual dysfunction in 1,274 European men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol 2003; 169: 225761
  • 3
    Rosen R, Altwein J, Boyle P et al. Lower urinary tract symptoms and male sexual dysfunction: the Multinational Survey of the Aging Male (MSAM-7). Eur Urol 2003; 44: 63749
  • 4
    Hansen BL. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual function in both sexes. Eur Urol 2004; 46: 22934
  • 5
    Montorsi P, Montorsi F, Schulman CC. Is erectile dysfunction the ‘tip of the iceberg’ of a systemic vascular disorder? Eur Urol 2003; 44: 3524
  • 6
    Ghafar MA, Puchner PJ, Anastasiadis AG, Cabelin MA, Buttyan R. Does the prostatic vascular system contribute to the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia? Curr Urol Rep 2002; 3: 2926
  • 7
    Berger AP, Kofler K, Bektic J et al. Increased growth factor production in a human prostatic stromal cell culture model caused by hypoxia. Prostate 2003; 57: 5765
  • 8
    Michel MC, Mehlburger L, Schumacher H, Bressel HU, Goepel M. Effect of diabetes on lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol 2000; 163: 17259
  • 9
    Thompson MM, Garland C, Barrett-Connor E, Khaw KT, Friedlander NJ, Wingard D. Heart disease risk factors, diabetes, and prostatic cancer in an adult community. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 129: 5117
  • 10
    Buttyan R, Chichester P, Stisser B, Matsumoto S, Ghafar MA, Levin RM. Acute intravesical infusion of a cobalt solution stimulates a hypoxia response, growth and angiogenesis in the rat bladder. J Urol 2003; 169: 24026
  • 11
    Fein M, Delorme S, Weisser G, Zuna I, Van Kaick G. Quantification of color Doppler for the evaluation of tissue vascularization. Ultrasound Med Biol 1995; 21: 10139
  • 12
    Cheng WF, Lee CN, Chu JS et al. Vascularity index as a novel parameter for the in vivo assessment of angiogenesis in patients with cervical carcinoma. Cancer 1999; 85: 6517
  • 13
    Nelson TR, Pretorius DH. The Doppler signal: where does it come from and what does it mean? AJR Am J Roentgenol 1988; 151: 43947
  • 14
    Rosen RC, Riley A, Wagner G, Osterloh IH, Kirkpatrick J, Mishra A. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF): a multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction. Urology 1997; 49: 82230
  • 15
    Sak SC, Hussain Z, Johnston C, Eardley I. What is the relationship between male sexual function and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)? Eur Urol 2004; 46: 4827
  • 16
    Hammarsten J, Hoegstedt B. Hyperinsulinaemia as a risk factor for developing benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol 2001; 39: 1518
  • 17
    Goldstein I. The mutually reinforcing triad of depressive symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and erectile dysfunction. Am J Cardiol 2000; 86: 41F45F
  • 18
    Shiri R, Koskimäki J, Häkkinen J et al. Effects of age, comorbidity and lifestyle factors on erectile function: Tampere Ageing Male Urology Study (TAMUS). Eur Urol 2004; 45: 62833
  • 19
    Kaplan SA, Te AE, Pressler LB, Olsson CA. Transition zone index as a method of assessing benign prostatic hyperplasia: correlation with symptoms, urine flow and detrusor pressure. J Urol 1995; 154: 17649
  • 20
    Caspary L, Creutzig A, Alexander K. Comparison of Laser-Doppler-Flux and tcPO2 in healthy probands and patients with arterial ischemia. Adv Exp Med Biol 1987; 220: 23540
  • 21
    Schuster A, Pinggera G, Pallwein L et al. Assessment of transrectal color Doppler ultrasound (TRCDUS) for measurement of urinary bladder neck blood flow in a porcine model: comparison to laser Doppler flowmetry. Eur Radiol 2003; (Suppl 1): ♯315
  • 22
    Harris AL. Hypoxia – a key regulatory factor in tumour growth. Nat Rev Cancer 2002; 2: 3847
  • 23
    Palmer LA, Semenza GL, Stoler MH, Johns RA. Hypoxia induces type II NOS gene expression in pulmonary artery endothelial cells via HIF-1. Am J Physiol 1998; 274 (2 Pt 1): L2129