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Authors may use the abbreviations in this list, without definition when within the main text, but defined when in the Summary. Other abbreviations must be defined on first mention, both in the Summary and in the main text. Abbreviations of units should be those defined by SI.

AIDS

acquired immune deficiency syndrome

anova

analysis of variance

AUA

American Urological Association

BAUS

British Association of Urological Surgeons

BCG

bacille Calmette-Guérin

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia

BSA

bovine serum albumin

BOO

bladder outlet obstruction

CI

confidence interval

CNS

central nervous system

CT

computed tomography

DMSA

dimercapto-succinic acid

DRE

digital rectal examination

DTPA

diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid

EDTA

ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ESWL

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

GFR

glomerular filtration rate

GnRH

gonadotrophin-releasing hormone

GP

general practitioner

hCG

human chorionic gonadotrophin

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HPLC

high-pressure liquid chromatography

ICS

International Continence Society

IGF

insulin-like growth factor

IgXz

immunoglobulin (class X, subclass z)

IPSS

International Prostate Symptom Score

IVU

intravenous urography

LHRH

luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

LUTS

lower urinary tract symptoms

MAG

mercapto-acetylglycine

MAG3

mercapto-acetyltriglycine

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

NHS

National Health Service

NSAIDs

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

PAGE

polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

PBS

phosphate buffered saline

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

PSA

prostate-specific antigen

PTFE

polytetrafluoroethylene

PUJ

pelvi-ureteric junction

PUV

posterior urethral valves

RCC

renal cell carcinoma

sd

standard deviation

SDS

sodium dodecyl sulphate

TCC

transitional cell carcinoma

TGF

transforming growth factor

TNF

tumour necrosis factor

TNM

Tumour-Node-Metastasis

TRUS

transrectal ultrasonography

TURP

transurethral resection of the prostate

UTI

Urinary tract infection

VUR

vesico-ureteric reflux

WHO

World Health Organization