Paediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy: setting new frontiers

Authors

  • LUBNA SAMAD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Paediatric Urology, The Kidney Centre Postgraduate Training Institute, Karachi, Pakistan
      Lubna Samad, Paediatric Urology, The Kidney Centre Postgraduate Training Institute, Karachi, Pakistan.
      e-mail: zzaidi@cyber.net.pk
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  • SHAHID AQUIL,

    1. Paediatric Urology, The Kidney Centre Postgraduate Training Institute, Karachi, Pakistan
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  • ZAFAR ZAIDI

    1. Paediatric Urology, The Kidney Centre Postgraduate Training Institute, Karachi, Pakistan
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Lubna Samad, Paediatric Urology, The Kidney Centre Postgraduate Training Institute, Karachi, Pakistan.
e-mail: zzaidi@cyber.net.pk

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the safety and outcome of paediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for atypical cases and compare the results with ‘standard’ unilateral paediatric PCNL.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

We retrospectively reviewed children who had had a PCNL between December 1997 and December 2004. Patients were grouped as follows: group 1, aged >5–16 years with normal anatomy and normal renal function undergoing unilateral PCNL or staged bilateral PCNL; group 2, ≤ 5 years with normal anatomy and renal function undergoing unilateral PCNL; group 3, undergoing bilateral simultaneous PCNL; group 4, impaired renal function in addition to renal stone disease; group 5, renal anatomical abnormality with calculi in the same kidney. Demographics, stone profile, procedure and outcome indicators were analysed for each group.

RESULTS

In all, 188 consecutive PCNLs in 169 children were included (mean age 3.3–10.3 years, mean stone burden 19.1–33.3 mm in the five groups). The mean duration of PCNL was 69–115 min. Stone clearance was satisfactory with single tract access in 90–100% of patients. Transient postoperative fever was the commonest complication (12.5–51%) followed by hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia. Blood transfusion was required in 0–7.7%. The mean stone clearance rates were 47–90% in the five groups; additional extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy increased the cumulative clearance rates to 90–100%.

CONCLUSION

PCNL is safe for treating renal stones, with excellent results and minimal complications. Comparable results are achieved in the very young child, children with anatomically abnormal kidneys, children with impaired renal function and children with bilateral renal stones undergoing simultaneous bilateral PCNL. Hence none of these factors should be considered as relative contraindications.

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