Predictive factors for nocturia in elderly men: a cross-sectional study in 21 general practices


Luba W. Gourova, Department of Urology, University of Maastricht, P. Debyelaan 25, Postbox 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands.



To measure the prevalence of nocturia in general practice and to determine which factors are associated with nocturia.


Data were collected from 3048 elderly men, who completed a questionnaire that was sent to every man aged 55–75 years in 21 general practices in Maastricht (the Netherlands). The symptom of nocturia was defined as two or more nocturnal voids. We investigated the prevalence of nocturia and the predictive relationships with the following factors: cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus/insipidus (DMI), Parkinson's diseases, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, bladder/prostate cancer, kidney diseases, urinary bladder inflammation, congenital diseases (kidneys or prostate), using medical treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms, other treatment, psychological depression, symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and alcohol intake.


Data from 2934 respondents were analysed; the prevalence of nocturia (two or more nocturnal voids) was 32.9% (965 men). The frequency of the number of nocturnal voids was: zero in 588 (20.0%), one in 1344 (45.8%), two in 611 (20.8%), three in 208 (7.1%), four in 70 (2.4%), and five or more in 76 (2.6%), with 37 values missing. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that nocturia in elderly men was significantly related to bladder/prostate cancer, cerebrovascular disease, treatment of voiding disorders, and moderate alcohol consumption. Next to these, BPH had a significant relationship with nocturia, especially in respondents with DMI and hypertension. Cardiovascular disease or hypertension was significantly related to nocturia, mutually replacing each other as a risk factor.


Nocturia in elderly men is be related to many sources of potential risk factors: earlier urological diseases, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, BPH, DMI and behavioural habits. Some of these sources may interact and generate especially high risk in some groups for nocturia.