• 1
    Murphy WM, Soloway MS. Urothelial dysplasia. J Urol 1982; 127: 84954
  • 2
    BAUS. Dataset. BAUS Cancer Registry. British Association of Urological Surgeons, 2002
  • 3
    Grasso M, Bagley D. A 7.5/8.2 F actively deflectable, flexible ureteroscope: a new device for both diagnostic and therapeutic upper urinary tract endoscopy. Urology 1994; 43: 43541
  • 4
    Bagley DH. Ureteroscopic treatment of upper urinary tract neoplasms. InSmithAD, BadlaniGH, BagleyDH et al. eds, Smith’s Textbook of Endourology. St. Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing, Inc, 1996: 47498
  • 5
    Siemens DR, Morales A, Johnston B, Emerson L. A comparative analysis of rapid urine tests for the diagnosis of upper urinary tract malignancy. Can J Urol 2003; 10: 17548
  • 6
    Hughes JH, Raab SS, Cohen MB. The cytologic diagnosis of low-grade transitional cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 2000; 114 (Suppl.): S5967
  • 7
    Lodde M, Mian C, Wiener H, Haitel A, Pycha A, Marberger M. Detection of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma with ImmunoCyt: a preliminary report. Urology 2001; 58: 3626
  • 8
    Xu X, Genega EM, Nasuti JF. Differential immunocytochemical staining patterns of uroplakin observed on neoplastic and nonneoplastic tissue fragments obtained from upper urinary tract brush specimens. Acta Cytol 2002; 46: 6849
  • 9
    El-Hakim A, Weiss GH, Lee BR, Smith AD. Correlation of ureteroscopic appearance with histologic grade of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Urology 2004; 63: 64750
  • 10
    Keeley FX, Kulp DA, Bibbo M, McCue PA, Bagley DH. Diagnostic accuracy of ureteroscopic biopsy in upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. J Urol 1997; 157: 337
  • 11
    Guarnizo E, Pavlovich CP, Seiba M, Carlson DL, Vaughan ED Jr, Sosa RE. Ureteroscopic biopsy of upper tract urothelial carcinoma: improved diagnostic accuracy and histopathological considerations using a multi-biopsy approach. J Urol 2000; 163: 525
  • 12
    Skolarikos A, Griffiths TR, Powell PH, Thomas DJ, Neal DE, Kelly JD. Cytologic analysis of ureteral washings is informative in patients with grade 2 upper tract TCC considering endoscopic treatment. Urology 2003; 61: 114650
  • 13
    Shiraishi K, Eguchi S, Mohri J, Kamiryo Y. Role of ureteroscopic biopsy in the management of upper urinary tract malignancy. Int J Urol 2003; 10: 62730
  • 14
    Das AK, Carson CC, Bolick D, Paulson DF. Primary carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Effect of primary and secondary therapy on survival. Cancer 1990; 66: 191923
  • 15
    Williams SK, Minervini A, Denton KJ, Keeley FX Jr, Timoney AG. Correlation of upper tract cytology, retrograde pyelography, ureteroscopic appearance and ureteroscopic biopsy with histology of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. J Endourol 2007; in press
  • 16
    Jarrett TW, Sweetser PM, Weiss GH, Smith AD. Percutaneous management of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal collecting system: 9-year experience. J Urol 1995; 154: 162935
  • 17
    Warshauer DM, McCarthy SM, Street L et al. Detection of renal masses: sensitivities and specificities of excretory urography/linear tomography, US, and CT. Radiology 1988; 169: 3635
  • 18
    Khadra MH, Pickard RS, Charlton M, Powell PH, Neal DE. A prospective analysis of 1930 patients with hematuria to evaluate current diagnostic practice. J Urol 2000; 163: 5247
  • 19
    Edwards TJ, Dickinson AJ, Natale S, Gosling J, McGrath JS. A prospective analysis of the diagnostic yield from the attendance of 4020 patients at a protocol-driven haematuria clinic. BJU Int 2006; 97: 3015
  • 20
    Heneghan JP, Kim DH, Leder RA, De Long D, Nelson RC. Compression CT urography: a comparison with IVU in the opacification of the collecting system and ureters. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2001; 25: 3437
  • 21
    Lang EK, Macchia RJ, Thomas R et al. Improved detection of renal pathologic features on multiphasic helical CT compared with IVU in patients presenting with microscopic hematuria. Urology 2003; 61: 52832
  • 22
    Gray Sears CL, Ward JF, Sears ST, Puckett MF, Kane CJ, Amilng CL. Prospective comparison of computerized tomography and excretory urography in the initial evaluation of asymptomatic microhematuria. J Urol 2002; 168: 245760
  • 23
    Verswijvel GA, Oyen RH, Van Poppel HP et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of urologic disease: an all-in-one approach. Eur Radiol 2000; 10: 16149
  • 24
    Girish G, Chooi WK, Morcos SK. Filling defect artefacts in magnetic resonance urography. Eur Radiol 2004; 14: 14550
  • 25
    Takebayashi S, Hosaka M, Kubota Y et al. Computerised tomographic ureteroscopy for diagnosing ureteral tumours. J Urol 2000; 163: 426
  • 26
    Takebayashi S, Hosaka M, Takase K, Kubota N, Kishida T, Matsubara S. Computerised tomographic nephroscopic images of renal pelvic carcinoma. J Urol 1999; 162: 3158
  • 27
    Weeks SM, Brown ED, Brown JJ, Adamis MK, Eisenberg LB, Semelka RC. Transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: staging by MRI. Abdom Imaging 1995; 20: 3657
  • 28
    Buckley JA, Urban BA, Soyer P, Scherrer A, Fishmann EK. Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis: a retrospective look at CT staging with pathological correlation. Radiology 1996; 201: 1948
  • 29
    Fritz GA, Schoellnast H, Deutschmann HA, Quehenberger F, Tillich M. Multiphasic multidetector-row CT (MDCT) in detection and staging of transitional cell carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. Eur Radiol 2006; 16: 124452
  • 30
    Goldberg BB, Bagley D, Liu JB, Merton DA, Alexander A, Kurtz AB. Endoluminal sonography of the urinary tract: preliminary observations. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991; 156: 99103
  • 31
    Grotas A, Grasso M. Endoluminal sonographic imaging of upper urinary tract: three-dimensional reconstruction. J Endourol 2001; 15: 4858
  • 32
    Kumar PV, Joshi HB, Timoney AG, Keeley FX Jr. Endoluminal ultrasonography with reusable probe: preliminary results. J Endourol 2002; 16: 66771
  • 33
    Keeley FX Jr, Bibbo M, McCue PA, Bagley DH. Use of p53 in the diagnosis of upper-tract transitional cell carcinoma. Urology 1997; 49: 1816
  • 34
    Langner C, Ratschek M, Tsybrovsky O, Schips L, Zigeuner R. P63 immunoreactivity distinguishes upper urinary tract transitional-cell carcinoma and renal-cell carcinoma even in poorly differentiated tumors. J Histochem Cytochem 2003; 51: 10979
  • 35
    Langner C, Von Wasieewski R, Ratschek M, Rehak P, Zigeuner R. Expression of p27 and its ubiquitin ligase subunit Skp2 in upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. Urology 2004; 64: 6116
  • 36
    Amira N, Rivet J, Soliman H et al. Microsatellite instability in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. J Urol 2003; 170: 11514