• 1
    Goodwin WE, Casey WC, Woolf W. Percutaneous trocar (needle) nephrostomy in hydronephrosis. J Am Med Assoc 1988; 157: 8914
  • 2
    Fernstrom I, Johansson B. Percutaneous pyelolithotomy, a new extraction technique. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1976; 10: 2579
  • 3
    Alken P, Hutschenreiter G, Gunther R, Marberger M. Percutaneous stone manipulation. J Urol 1981; 125: 4636
  • 4
    Ng MT, Sun WH, Cheng CW, Chang ES. Supine position is safe and effective for percutaneous nephrolithotomy. J Endourol 2004; 18: 46974
  • 5
    Clayman RV, Bub P, Haaff E, Dresner S. Prone flexible cystoscopy: an adjunct to percutaneous stone removal. J Urol 1987; 137: 657
  • 6
    Leal JJ. Percutaneous removal of renal and ureteral stones with and without concomitant transurethral manipulation by a urologist using anterograde and retrograde techniques without a radiologist’s assistance. J Urol 1988; 139: 11847
  • 7
    Lehman T, Bagley DH. Reverse lithotomy. modified prone position for simultaneous nephroscopic and ureteroscopic procedures in women. Urology 1988; 32: 52931
  • 8
    Scarpa RM, Cossu FM, De Lisa A, Porru D, Usai E. Severe recurrent ureteral stricture. the combined use of an anterograde and retrograde approach in the prone split-leg position without X-rays. Eur Urol 1997; 31: 2546
  • 9
    Grasso M, Nord R, Bagley DH. Prone split leg and flank roll positioning: simultaneous anterograde and retrograde access to the upper urinary tract. J Endourol 1993; 7: 30710
  • 10
    Kerbl K, Clayman RV, Chandhoke PS, Urban DA, De Leo BC, Carbone JM. Percutaneous stone removal with the patient in a flank position. J Urol 1994; 151: 6868
  • 11
    Landman J, Venkatesh R, Lee DI et al. Combined percutaneous and retrograde approach to staghorn calculi with application of the ureteral access sheath to facilitate percutaneous nephrolithotomy. J Urol 2003; 169: 647
  • 12
    Cheng MA, Todorov A, Tempelhoff R, McHugh T, Crowder CM, Lauryssen C. The effect of prone positioning on intraocular pressure in anesthetized patients. Anaesthesiology 2001; 95: 13515
  • 13
    Anderton JM, Schady W, Markham DE. An unusual cause of postoperative brachial plexus palsy. Br J Anaesth 1994; 72: 6057
  • 14
    Anderton JM. The prone position for the surgical patient: a historical review of the principles and hazards. Br J Anaesth 1991; 67: 45263
  • 15
    Mahajan RP, Hennessy N, Aitkenhead AR, Jellinek D. Effect of three different surgical prone positions on lung Volumes in healthy volunteers. Anaesthesia 1994; 49: 5836
  • 16
    Bhardwaj A, Long DM, Ducker TB, Toung TJ. Neurologic deficits after cervical laminectomy in the prone position. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2001; 13: 3149
  • 17
    Pump B, Talleruphuus U, Christensen NJ, Warberg J, Norsk P. Effects of supine, prone, and lateral positions on cardiovascular and renal variables in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2002; 283: R17480
  • 18
    Schou M, Pump B, Gabrielsen A et al. Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to left lateral position in non-obese young males. J Gravit Physiol 2001; 8: 159
  • 19
    Takizawa D, Hiraoka H, Nakamura K, Yamamoto K, Horiuchi R. Influence of the prone position on propofol pharmacokinetics. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 12501
  • 20
    Tiefenthaler W, Gabl M, Teuchner B, Benzer A. Intraocular pressure during lumbar disc surgery in the knee-elbow position. Anaesthesia 2005; 60: 87881
  • 21
    Gofrit ON, Shapiro A, Donchin Y et al. Lateral decubitus position for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy in the morbidly obese or kyphotic patieny. J Endourol 2002; 16: 3836
  • 22
    Frattini A, Salsi P, Ferretti S, Ciuffreda M, Cortellini P. Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) in supine position: our experience. Eur Urol Suppl 2006; 5: 110
  • 23
    Valdivia Uria JG, Valle Gerhold J, Lopez Lopez JA et al. Technique and complications of percutaneous nephroscopy: experience with 557 patients in the supine position. J Urol 1998; 160: 19758
  • 24
    Valdivia Uria JG, Valle J, Villarroya S. Why is percutaneous nephroscopy still performed with patient prone? J Endourol 1990; 4: 26972
  • 25
    Barbaric ZL, Hall T, Cochran ST, Heitz DR, Schwartz RA, Krasny RM. Percutaneous nephrostomy. placement under CT and fluoroscopy guidance. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997; 169: 1515
  • 26
    Shoma AM, Eraky I, El-Kenawy MR, El-Kappany HA. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the supine position. technical aspects and functional outcome compared with the prone technique. Urology 2002; 60: 38892
  • 27
    Ibarluzea G, Gamarra, M.Gallego JA. Percutaneous kidney lithotripsy. Clinical course, indications and current methodology in our lithotripsy unit. Arch Esp Urol 2001; 54: 95169