The changing pattern of kidney cancer incidence and mortality in Europe

Authors

  • Fabio Levi,

    1. Unité d’épidémiologie du cancer et Registres des tumeurs de Vaud et Neuchâtel, Institut de médecine sociale et préventive (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, *International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon Cedex, France,†Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ‘Mario Negri’, and‡Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria ‘G.A. Maccacaro’, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
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  • Jacques Ferlay,

    1. Unité d’épidémiologie du cancer et Registres des tumeurs de Vaud et Neuchâtel, Institut de médecine sociale et préventive (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, *International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon Cedex, France,†Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ‘Mario Negri’, and‡Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria ‘G.A. Maccacaro’, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
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  • Carlotta Galeone,

    1. Unité d’épidémiologie du cancer et Registres des tumeurs de Vaud et Neuchâtel, Institut de médecine sociale et préventive (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, *International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon Cedex, France,†Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ‘Mario Negri’, and‡Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria ‘G.A. Maccacaro’, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
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  • Franca Lucchini,

    1. Unité d’épidémiologie du cancer et Registres des tumeurs de Vaud et Neuchâtel, Institut de médecine sociale et préventive (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, *International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon Cedex, France,†Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ‘Mario Negri’, and‡Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria ‘G.A. Maccacaro’, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
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  • Eva Negri,

    1. Unité d’épidémiologie du cancer et Registres des tumeurs de Vaud et Neuchâtel, Institut de médecine sociale et préventive (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, *International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon Cedex, France,†Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ‘Mario Negri’, and‡Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria ‘G.A. Maccacaro’, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
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  • Peter Boyle,

    1. Unité d’épidémiologie du cancer et Registres des tumeurs de Vaud et Neuchâtel, Institut de médecine sociale et préventive (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, *International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon Cedex, France,†Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ‘Mario Negri’, and‡Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria ‘G.A. Maccacaro’, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
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  • Carlo La Vecchia

    1. Unité d’épidémiologie du cancer et Registres des tumeurs de Vaud et Neuchâtel, Institut de médecine sociale et préventive (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, *International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon Cedex, France,†Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ‘Mario Negri’, and‡Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria ‘G.A. Maccacaro’, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
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Fabio Levi, Unité d’épidémiologie du cancer et Registres vaudois et neuchâtelois des tumeurs, CHUV-Falaises 1, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.
e-mail: fabio.levi@chuv.ch

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To update trends in kidney cancer mortality in 32 European countries and the European Union (EU) as a whole, as mortality from kidney cancer has increased throughout Europe until the late 1980s or early 1990s, and has tended to stabilise or decline thereafter.

METHODS

Data from the World Health Organization mortality database over the period 1980–2004 were used to compute age-specific and age-standardized (world standard) rates per 100 000 persons at all ages, and truncated to 35–64 years.

RESULTS

In men in the EU, mortality rates from kidney cancer peaked at 4.8 per 100 000 in 1990–1994, and declined to 4.1 (−13%) in 2000–2004. In women in the EU, the corresponding values were 2.1 in 1990–1994 and 1.8 (−17%) in 2000–2004. The main decreases were in Scandinavian countries, and other western European countries. In most eastern European countries kidney mortality rates tended to stabilise, even if values remained high, especially in the Czech Republic and Baltic countries. For kidney cancer incidence, there were decreases in rates for both sexes in Sweden throughout the 25-year calendar period considered. In the last 10 years considered, incidence rates decreased or tended to stabilise also in other northern European countries in both sexes, except in the UK.

CONCLUSION

The present work confirms and further quantifies the recent favourable trends in kidney cancer mortality and (to a lesser degree) in incidence across most European countries. Thus, improvements in diagnosis and treatments cannot largely explain the declines in mortality. Apart from a favourable role of reduced tobacco smoking in men, the interpretation of these trends remains undefined.

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