• 1
    Schapiro B. Premature ejaculation, a review of 1130 cases. J Urol 1943; 50: 3749
  • 2
    Semans JH. Premature ejaculation: a new approach. South Med J 1956; 49: 3538
  • 3
    Masters WH, Johnson VE. Human Sexual Inadequacy. Boston, MA: Little Brown, 1970: 92115
  • 4
    Eaton H. Clomipramine in the treatment of premature ejaculation. J Int Med Res 1973; 1: 4324
  • 5
    Assalian P. Clomipramine in the treatment of premature ejaculation. J Sex Res 1988; 24: 2135
  • 6
    Waldinger MD, Hengeveld M. Neuroseksuologie en seksuele psychofarmacologie. Tijdschr Psychiatr 2000; 8: 58593
  • 7
    Olivier B, Van Oorschot R, Waldinger MD. Serotonin, serotonergic receptors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and sexual behaviour. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1998; 13 (Suppl. 6): S914
  • 8
    Waldinger MD, Rietschel M, Nothen MM, Hengeveld MW, Olivier B. Familial occurrence of primary premature ejaculation. Psychiatr Genet 1998; 8: 3740
  • 9
    Waldinger M, Olivier B. Hersenonderzoek en farmacologie: serotonine, seks en agressie. In Wolters-SchweitzerMHJ, BeugerCL eds, Het Brein Belicht: Opstellen Over Niet-Aangeboren Hersenletsel. Utrecht: Uitgeverij Lemma, 2001: 5563
  • 10
    Pattij T, Olivier B, Waldinger MD. Animal models of ejaculatory behavior. Curr Pharm Des 2005; 11: 406977
  • 11
    Olivier B, Chan JS, Pattij T et al. Psychopharmacology of male rat sexual behavior: modeling human sexual dysfunctions? Int J Impot Res 2006; 18 (Suppl. 1): S1423
  • 12
    Giuliano F, Clement P. Serotonin and premature ejaculation: from physiology to patient management. Eur Urol 2006; 50: 45466
  • 13
    Waldinger MD, Zwinderman AH, Schweitzer DH, Olivier B. Relevance of methodological design for the interpretation of efficacy of drug treatment of premature ejaculation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Impot Res 2004; 16: 36981
  • 14
    Metz ME, Pryor JL, Nesvacil LJ, Abuzzahab FSr, Koznar J. Premature ejaculation: a psychophysiological review. J Sex Marital Ther 1997; 23: 323
  • 15
    Metz ME, Pryor JL. Premature ejaculation: a psychophysiological approach for assessment and management. J Sex Marital Ther 2000; 26: 293320
  • 16
    Symonds T, Roblin D, Hart K, Althof S. How does premature ejaculation impact a man’s life? J Sex Marital Ther 2003; 29: 36170
  • 17
    Waldinger MD, Quinn P, Dilleen M, Mundayat R, Schweitzer DH, Boolell M. A multinational population survey of intravaginal ejaculation latency time. J Sex Med 2005; 2: 4927
  • 18
    Patrick DL, Althof SE, Pryor JL et al. Premature ejaculation: an observational study of men and their partners. J Sex Med 2005; 2: 58367
  • 19
    Rosen R, Althof S. Psychological consequences of PE, quality of life and impact on sexual relationships. J Sex Med 2008 (in press)
  • 20
    Rowland D, Cooper S, Macias L. Pharmaceutical companies could serve their own interests by supporting research on the efficacy of psychotherapy on premature ejaculation. Int J Impot Res 2008; 20: 11520
  • 21
    Waldinger MD. Premature ejaculation: definition and drug treatment. Drugs 2007; 67: 54768
  • 22
    Screponi E, Carosa E, Di Stasi SM, Pepe M, Carruba G, Jannini EA. Prevalence of chronic prostatitis in men with premature ejaculation. Urology 2001; 58: 198202
  • 23
    Carani C, Isidori AM, Granata A et al. Multicenter study on the prevalence of sexual symptoms in male hypo- and hyperthyroid patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 64729
  • 24
    Laumann EO, Nicolosi A, Glasser DB et al. Sexual problems among women and men aged 40–80 y: prevalence and correlates identified in the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors. Int J Impot Res 2005; 17: 3957
  • 25
    Hartmann U, Schedlowski M, Kruger TH. Cognitive and partner-related factors in rapid ejaculation: differences between dysfunctional and functional men. World J Urol 2005; 10: 10
  • 26
    Waldinger MD, Schweitzer DH. Changing paradigms from a historical DSM-III and DSM-IV view toward an evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation. Part II – proposals for DSM-V and ICD-11. J Sex Med 2006; 3: 693705
  • 27
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV 4th Edition. Washington, DC: APA, 1994: 50911
  • 28
    World Health Organization. International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th edn.Geneva: WHO, 1994
  • 29
    Metz M, McCarthy B. Coping with Premature Ejaculation. How to Overcome PE, Please Your Partner and Have Great Sex. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 2003
  • 30
    Montague DK, Jarow J, Broderick GA et al. AUA guideline on the pharmacologic management of premature ejaculation. J Urol 2004; 172: 2904
  • 31
    Colpi G, Weidner W, Jungwirth A et al. EAU guidelines on ejaculatory dysfunction. Eur Urol 2004; 46: 5558
  • 32
    McMahon CG, Abdo C, Incrocci I et al. Disorders of orgasm and ejaculation in men. In LueTF, BassonR, RosenR eds, Sexual Medicine: Sexual Dysfunctions in Men and Women (2nd International Consultation on Sexual Dysfunctions-Paris). Paris: Health Publications, 2004: 40968
  • 33
    Waldinger MD, Zwinderman AH, Olivier B, Schweitzer DH. Proposal for a definition of lifelong premature ejaculation based on epidemiological stopwatch data. J Sex Med 2005; 2: 498507
  • 34
    Jannini EA, Lombardo F, Lenzi A. Correlation between ejaculatory and erectile dysfunction. Int J Androl 2005; 28 (Suppl. 2): 405
  • 35
    Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence (May 2001). Available at: Accessed February 2008
  • 36
    Althof SE, Symonds T. Patient reported outcomes used in the assessment of premature ejaculation. Urol Clin North Am 2007; 34: 5819
  • 37
    Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence-based medicine: what it is and what it isn’t. BMJ 1996; 213: 712
  • 38
    Cronbach LJ, Meehl PE. Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychol Bull 1955; 52: 281302
  • 39
    Althof S, Rowland D. Identifying constructs and criteria for the diagnosis of premature ejaculation: implication for making errors of classification. BJU Int 2008 (in press)
  • 40
    Waldinger MD. The need for a revival of psychoanalytic investigations into premature ejaculation. J Mens Health Gender 2006; 3: 3906
  • 41
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-III 3rd Edition. Washington, DC: APA, 1980
  • 42
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-III-R 3rd Edition Revised. Washington DC: APA, 1987
  • 43
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR 4th Edition Revised. Washington DC: APA, 2000
  • 44
    Cooper AJ, Magnus RV. A clinical trial of the beta blocker propranolol in premature ejaculation. J Psychosom Res 1984; 28: 3316
  • 45
    Spiess WF, Geer JH, O’Donohue WT. Premature ejaculation: investigation of factors in ejaculatory latency. J Abnorm Psychol 1984; 93: 2425
  • 46
    Strassberg DS, Mahoney JM, Schaugaard M, Hale VE. The role of anxiety in premature ejaculation: a psychophysiological model. Arch Sex Behav 1990; 19: 2517
  • 47
    Strassberg DS, Kelly MP, Carroll C, Kircher JC. The psychophysiological nature of premature ejaculation. Arch Sex Behav 1987; 16: 32736
  • 48
    LoPiccolo J. Direct treatment of sexual dysfunction in the couple. In MoneyJ, MesaphH eds, Handbook of Sexology: Vol. 5. Selected Syndromes and Therapy. New York: Elsevier, 1978: 122744
  • 49
    Kilmann PR, Auerbach R. Treatments of premature ejaculation and psychogenic impotence: a critical review of the literature. Arch Sex Behav 1979; 8: 81100
  • 50
    Trudel G, Proulx S. Treatment of premature ejaculation by bibliotherapy: an experimental study. Sex Marital Ther 1987; 2: 1637
  • 51
    Zeiss RA, Christensen A, Levine AG. Treatment for premature ejaculation through male-only groups. J Sex Marital Ther 1978; 4: 13943
  • 52
    Schover L, Friedman J, Weiler S, Heiman J, LoPiccolo J. Multiaxial problem-oriented system for sexual dysfunctions. Arch Gen Psychiat 1982; 39: 6149
  • 53
    Waldinger MD, Schweitzer DH. Changing paradigms from a historical DSM-III and DSM-IV view toward an evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation. Part I – validity of DSM-IV-TR. J Sex Med 2006; 3: 68292
  • 54
    O’Donohue W, Letourneau EJ, Geer JH. Premature ejaculation. In O’DonohueW ed., Handbook of Sexual Dysfunctions. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993: 30333
  • 55
    Waldinger MD. The neurobiological approach to premature ejaculation. J Urol 2002; 168: 235967
  • 56
    Waldinger MD, Schweitzer DH. The use of old and recent DSM definitions of premature ejaculation in observational studies: a contribution to the present debate for a new classification of PE in the DSM-V. J Sex Med 2008 May; 5: 107987
  • 57
    Waldinger MD, Schweitzer DH. The DSM-IV-TR Is an inadequate diagnostic tool for premature ejaculation. J Sex Med 2007; 4: 8223
  • 58
    Segraves R, Balon R, Clayton A. Proposal for changes in diagnostic criteria for sexual dysfunctions. J Sex Med 2007; 4: 56780
  • 59
    Segraves RT, Balon R. Toward an improved nosology of sexual dysfunctions in DSM-V. Psychiatric Times 2007; 24: 446
  • 60
    Balon R, Segraves RT, Clayton A. Issues for DSM-V: sexual dysfunction, disorder, or variation along normal distribution. Toward rethinking DSM criteria of sexual dysfunctions. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164: 1989
  • 61
    Hellstrom WJ. The DSM-IV-TR is an appropriate diagnostic tool for premature ejaculation. J Sex Med 2007; 4: 252
  • 62
    Shabsigh R, Rowland D. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. Text revision as an appropriate diagnostic for premature ejaculation. J Sex Med 2007; 4: 146878
  • 63
    Waldinger MD, Hengeveld MW, Zwinderman AH. Paroxetine treatment of premature ejaculation: a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151: 13779
  • 64
    Waldinger MD. Four measures of investigating ejaculatory performance. J Sex Med 2007; 4: 520
  • 65
    Waldinger M, Hengeveld M, Zwinderman A, Olivier B. An empirical operationalization of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for premature ejaculation. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 1998; 2: 28793
  • 66
    McMahon CG. Long term results of treatment of premature ejaculation with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Int J Imp Res 2002; 14 (Suppl. 3): S19
  • 67
    Waldinger MD, Zwinderman AH, Olivier B, Schweitzer DH. The majority of men with lifelong premature ejaculation prefer daily drug treatment: an observation study in a consecutive group of Dutch men. J Sex Med 2007; 4: 102837
  • 68
    Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johnsson B, De Laet C, Dawson A. Risk of hip fracture according to the World Health Organization criteria for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Bone Marrow Transplant 2000; 27: 58590
  • 69
    World Health Organization. Assessment of Fracture Risk and Its Application to Screening for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. WHO Technical Report Series 843. Geneva: WHO, 1994
  • 70
    World Health Organization. Guidelines for Preclinical Evaluation and Clinical Trials in Osteoporosis. Geneva: WHO, 1998
  • 71
    World Health Organization. Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications. Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Geneva: WHO, 1999
  • 72
    Expert Panel on Detection Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285: 248697
  • 73
    Althof SE, Levine SB, Corty EW, Risen CB, Stern EB, Kurit DM. A double-blind crossover trial of clomipramine for rapid ejaculation in 15 couples. J Clin Psychiatry 1995; 56: 4027
  • 74
    Pryor JL, Broderick GA, Ho KF, Jamieson C, Gagnon D. Comparison of estimated versus measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) in men with and without premature ejaculation (PE). J Sex Med 2005; 3: 54, Abstract 126
  • 75
    Rosen RC, McMahon CG, Niederberger C, Broderick GA, Jamieson C, Gagnon DD. Correlates to the clinical diagnosis of premature ejaculation: results from a large observational study of men and their partners. J Urol 2007; 177: 105964
  • 76
    McMahon CG, Waldinger M, Rowland DL et al. Ejaculatory disorders. In PorstH, BuvatJ eds, Standard Practice in Sexual Medicine. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006: 188209
  • 77
    Perelman MA. A new combination treatment for premature ejaculation: a sex therapist’s perspective. J Sex Med 2006; 3: 100412
  • 78
    Grenier G, Byers ES. The relationships among ejaculatory control, ejaculatory latency, and attempts to prolong heterosexual intercourse. Arch Sex Behav 1997; 26: 2747
  • 79
    Cranston-Cuebas MA, Barlow DH. Cognitive and affective contributions to sexual functioning. Ann Rev Sex Res 1990; 1: 11961
  • 80
    Kaplan HS, Kohl RN, Pomeroy WB, Offit AK, Hogan B. Group treatment of premature ejaculation. Arch Sex Behav 1974; 3: 44352
  • 81
    Zilbergeld B. Male Sexuality. Toronto: Bantam Press, 1978
  • 82
    Perelman M. Treatment of premature ejaculation. In PervinL ed., Principles and Practices of Sex Therapy. Chapt 7. New York: Guilford Press, 1980: 199233
  • 83
    Vandereycken W. Towards a better delineation of ejaculatory disorders. Acta Psychiatr Belg 1986; 86: 5763
  • 84
    McCarthy B. Cognitive-behavioural strategies and techniques in the treatment of early ejaculation. In LeiblumSR, RosenR eds, Principles and Practices of Sex Therapy: Update for the 1990s. New York: Guilford Press, 1988: 14167
  • 85
    Rowland D, Perelman M, Althof S et al. Self-reported premature ejaculation and aspects of sexual functioning and satisfaction. J Sex Med 2004; 1: 22532
  • 86
    Grenier G, Byers S. Operationalizing premature or rapid ejaculation. J Sex Res 2001; 38: 36978
  • 87
    Giuliano F, Patrick DL, Porst H et al. Premature ejaculation: results from a five-country European observational study. Eur Urol 2008 May; 53: 104857
  • 88
    McMahon CG, Stuckey B, Andersen ML. Efficacy of Viagra: sildenafil citrate in men with premature ejaculation. J Sex Med 2005; 2: 36875
  • 89
    Rowland DL, Strassberg DS, De Gouveia Brazao CA, Slob AK. Ejaculatory latency and control in men with premature ejaculation: an analysis across sexual activities using multiple sources of information. J Psychosom Res 2000; 48: 6977
  • 90
    McMahon CG. The DSM-IV-TR definition of premature ejaculation and its impact upon the results of epidemiological studies. Eur Urol 2007; 53: 8879
  • 91
    Patrick DL, Rowland D, Rothman M. Interrelationships among measures of premature ejaculation: the central role of perceived control. J Sex Med 2007; 4: 7808
  • 92
    McMahon CG. Ejaculatory latency vs. patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as study end points in premature ejaculation clinical trials. Eur Urol 2007; 52: 3213
  • 93
    Porst H, Montorsi F, Rosen RC, Gaynor L, Grupe S, Alexander J. The Premature Ejaculation Prevalence and Attitudes (PEPA) survey: prevalence, comorbidities, and professional help-seeking. Eur Urol 2007; 51: 81623
  • 94
    Dunn KM, Croft PR, Hackett GI. Association of sexual problems with social, psychological, and physical problems in men and women: a cross sectional population survey. J Epidemiol Community Health 1999; 53: 1448
  • 95
    Rowland DL, Patrick DL, Rothman M, Gagnon DD. The psychological burden of premature ejaculation. J Urol 2007; 177: 106570
  • 96
    McCabe MP. Intimacy and quality of life among sexually dysfunctional men and women. J Sex Marital Ther 1997; 23: 27690
  • 97
    Byers ES, Grenier G. Premature or rapid ejaculation: heterosexual couples’ perceptions of men’s ejaculatory behavior. Arch Sex Behav 2003; 32: 26170
  • 98
    Riley A, Riley E. Premature ejaculation: presentation and associations. An audit of patients attending a sexual problems clinic. Int J Clin Pract 2005; 59: 14827
  • 99
    Brock GB, Gajewski J, Carrier S, Bernard F, Lee J, Pommerville PJ. The prevalence and impact of premature ejaculation in Canada. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the AUA May 19–24, 2007 Anaheim, CA
  • 100
    Althof SE. Prevalence, characteristics and implications of premature ejaculation/rapid ejaculation. J Urol 2006; 175: 8428
  • 101
    Althof S. The psychology of premature ejaculation: therapies and consequences. J Sex Med Suppl 2006; 4: 32431
  • 102
    McMahon C, Abdo C, Incrocci L et al. Disorders of orgasm and ejaculation in men. J Sex Med 2004; 1: 5865
  • 103
    Althof S, Rosen R, Symonds T, Mundayat R, May K, Abraham L. Development and validation of a new questionnaire to assess sexual satisfaction, control, and distress associated with premature ejaculation. J Sex Med 2006; 3: 46575
  • 104
    Barry MJ, Fowler FJ, O’Leary MP et al. The American Urological Association symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Measurement Committee of the American Urological Association. J Urol 1992; 148: 154957