Authors may use the abbreviations in this list, without definition when within the main text, but defined when in the Summary. Other abbreviations must be defined on first mention, both in the Summary and in the main text. Abbreviations of units should be those defined by SI.

AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome

ANOVA analysis of variance

AUA American Urological Association

BAUS British Association of Urological Surgeons

BCG bacille Calmette-Guérin

BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia

BSA bovine serum albumin

BOO bladder outlet obstruction

CI confidence interval

CNS central nervous system

CT computed tomography

DMSA dimercapto-succinic acid

DRE digital rectal examination

DTPA diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid

EDTA ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid

ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ESWL extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

FSH follicle-stimulating hormone

GFR glomerular filtration rate

GnRH gonadotrophin-releasing hormone

GP general practitioner

hCG human chorionic gonadotrophin

HIV human immunodeficiency virus

HPLC high-pressure liquid chromatography

ICS International Continence Society

IGF insulin-like growth factor

IgXz immunoglobulin (class X, subclass z)

IPSS International Prostate Symptom Score

IVU intravenous urography

LHRH luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

LUTS lower urinary tract symptoms

MAG mercapto-acetylglycine

MAG3 mercapto-acetyltriglycine

MHC major histocompatibility complex

MRI magnetic resonance imaging

NHS National Health Service

NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

PBS phosphate buffered saline

PCR polymerase chain reaction

PSA prostate-specific antigen

PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene

PUJ pelvi-ureteric junction

PUV posterior urethral valves

RCC renal cell carcinoma

SD standard deviation

SDS sodium dodecyl sulphate

TCC transitional cell carcinoma

TGF transforming growth factor

TNF tumour necrosis factor

TNM tumour-node-metastasis

TRUS transrectal ultrasonography

TURP transurethral resection of the prostate

UTI urinary tract infection

VUR vesico-ureteric reflux

WHO World Health Organization