Predictors of morbidity in patients with indwelling ureteric stents: results of a prospective study using the validated Ureteric Stent Symptoms Questionnaire

Authors


Gianluca Giannarini, MD, Department of Urology, University of Pisa, Ospedale di Cisanello, via Paradisa 2, I-56124 Pisa, Italy. e-mail: gianluca.giannarini@hotmail.it

Abstract

Study Type – Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4

What’s known on the subject? and What does the study add?

Although it has long been known that ureteric stenting is associated with significant morbidity in a high proportion of patients, predictors of morbidity remain largely elusive.

In a multivariable analysis of potential predictors of morbidity using the Ureteric Stent Symptoms Questionnaire, an easy-to-determine variable, i.e. the location of stent distal loop with respect to body midline, emerged as the strongest predictor of morbidity. Patients with stent distal loop crossing the midline experienced worse symptoms. The visualization of stent distal loop may, thus, help identify patients at higher risk of morbidity requiring early management.

OBJECTIVE To assess the predictors of morbidity in patients with indwelling ureteric stents using a validated questionnaire.

PATIENTS AND METHODS Eighty-six consecutive patients with indwelling double-J ureteric stent of different length and size enrolled at an Italian tertiary academic centre were prospectively evaluated with the Italian-validated Ureteric Stent Symptoms Questionnaire (USSQ), which explores the stent-related symptoms in six domains. Ureteric stents were placed for benign ureteric obstruction or after uncomplicated ureterorenoscopy, and were all removed after 28 days. The questionnaire was administered on days 7 and 28 after stent placement and on day 28 after removal. A plain abdominal X-ray was performed on days 7 and 28 after placement to determine stent location. Univariable and multivariable analyses tested the association of patient age, sex and body mass index (BMI), and stent side, length, calibre and distal loop location, with the index score of the various domains on days 7 and 28.

RESULTS All patients completed the study. At multivariable analysis, on day 7, sex, BMI and stent calibre were significantly associated with one domain (general health, body pain and work performance, respectively), while location of stent distal loop was significantly associated with five domains (urinary symptoms, body pain, general health, work performanc, and sexual matters). On day 28, body mass index was significantly associated with two domains (body pain and general health), while location of stent distal loop remained significantly associated with the same five domains (urinary symptoms, body pain, general health, work performance and sexual matters).

CONCLUSION Location of stent distal loop with respect to midline had the strongest association with most domains of the USSQ on both days 7 and 28 after stent placement. The visualization of stent distal loop crossing the midline may therefore identify patients at higher risk of post-procedural morbidity requiring early management.

Ancillary