Framework for incorporating simulation into urology training
Article first published online: 24 SEP 2010
© 2010 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2010 BJU INTERNATIONAL
Volume 107, Issue 5, pages 806–810, March 2011
How to Cite
Arora, S., Lamb, B., Undre, S., Kneebone, R., Darzi, A. and Sevdalis, N. (2011), Framework for incorporating simulation into urology training. BJU International, 107: 806–810. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09563.x
- Issue published online: 28 FEB 2011
- Article first published online: 24 SEP 2010
- Accepted for publication 1 April 2010
- virtual reality;
- clinical competence;
Study Type – Therapy (case series)
Level of Evidence 4
What’s known on the subject? and What does the study add?
Simulation-based training can provide urology trainees with the opportunity to develop their technical and non-technical skills in a safe and structured environment. Despite its promised benefits, incorporation of simulation into current curricula remains minimal.
This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current status of simulation for both technical and non-technical skills training as it pertains to urology. It provides a novel framework with contextualised examples of how simulation could be incorporated into a stage-specific curriculum for trainees through to experienced urologists, thus aiding its integration into current training programmes.
• Changes to working hours, new technologies and increased accountability have rendered the need for alternative training environments for urologists.
• Simulation offers a promising arena for learning to take place in a safe, realistic setting.
• Despite its benefits, the incorporation of simulation into urological training programmes remains minimal.
• The current status and future directions of simulation for training in technical and non-technical skills are reviewed as they pertain to urology.
• A framework is presented for how simulation-based training could be incorporated into the entire urological curriculum.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
• The literature on simulation in technical and non-technical skills training is reviewed, with a specific focus upon urology.
• To fully integrate simulation into a training curriculum, its possibilities for addressing all the competencies required by a urologist must be realized.
• At an early stage of training, simulation has been used to develop basic technical skills and cognitive skills, such as decision-making and communication.
• At an intermediate stage, the studies focus upon more advanced technical skills learnt with virtual reality simulators.
• Non-technical skills training would include leadership and could be delivered with in situ models.
• At the final stage, experienced trainees can practise technical and non-technical skills in full crisis simulations situated within a fully-simulated operating rooms.
• Simulation can provide training in the technical and non-technical skills required to be a competent urologist.
• The framework presented may guide how best to incorporate simulation into training curricula.
• Future work should determine whether acquired skills transfer to clinical practice and improve patient care.